The 2001 Translation AboutNeutral Terms

Adam und Eva
Adam und Eva (Adam and Eve), by Ludwig von Hofmann, 1910
In our bible, the Garden of Eden is known as the Paradise of Delights.

This page is still being written and is incomplete – June 2021

We replace traditional (and misleading) terms with ones that are neutral and more accurate. This frees readers from loaded terms and centuries of religious dogma.

Certain terms have gained meanings over the centuries that were not intended by the original authors. Therefore, the traditional translation of certain verses have become mistranslations, even if the words are technically correct (e.g. people thinking that Christ is Jesus’ last name, when it actually means Anointed One).

Also, many traditional terms were mistranslations from the start, so we replace them with accurate translations (e.g. Ark of the Covenant should be Chest of Proofs).

Here are all the common terms and our equivalents, listed alphabetically.


Angel = Messenger

The Hebrew, Greek, and Aramaic word for ‘angel’ and ‘messenger’ is the same. Popular imagery of angels depict them with wings and halos. While spirits are depicted with wings in certain visions, in other accounts angels look like ordinary men. Therefore, using ‘messenger’ does not implant a picture in the readers’ mind that may be inaccurate. Learn more.

Ark = Chest

The Bible does not describe what Noah built as a boat or ship, but as an ark. Indeed, it has no sails, no oars, and no rudder, appearing to be nothing more than a large box. Since nobody knows what ark means these days, we use chest. Learn more.

Ark of the Covenant = Chest of Proofs

Breastplate (or Breastpiece) of Judgment = Word of Judgment

Christ = Anointed One

People think that Christ is Jesus’ last name. It isn’t. It is a Greek term that literally means ‘the anointed one’. So to fix this misunderstanding, we use the term ‘Anointed One’ instead of ‘Christ.’ Learn more.

Consecrated = Perfect

Devil = Slanderer, Opposer, or Evil One

People think of ‘the Devil’ as a red creature presiding over Hell Fire, with a horns and a pitchforked tail. None of this is from the Bible, so not only do we use different terms, but we also use more accurate terms that reflect the original languages. Learn more.

Flood = Downpour, Great Downpour

Garden of Eden = Paradise of Delights

Gehenna = Garbage Dump

Hell = Place of the Dead

Holy Spirit = God’s Breath

Lucifer = Morning Star (not the Devil)

Lucifer was never a name for the Slanderer. It was a mistranslation. Learn more.

Satan = Slanderer

This is not a name, but a description. It’s a word that literally means Slanderer. Learn more.

Tabernacle / Tent of Meeting = Tent of Proofs

Umim and Thummim = Revelation and Truth


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