2001 Translation The 2001 Translation :

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2001 Translation

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    Neutral Terms

    Adam und Eva
    Adam und Eva (Adam and Eve), by Ludwig von Hofmann, 1910
    In our bible, the Garden of Eden is known as the Paradise of Delights.

    This page is still being written and is incomplete – Last updated February 2022

    We replace traditional (and misleading) terms with ones that are neutral and more literal. This frees readers from loaded terms and centuries of religious dogma.

    Certain terms have gained meanings over the centuries that were not intended by the original authors. Therefore, the traditional translation of certain verses have become mistranslations, even if the words are technically correct (e.g. people thinking that Christ is Jesus’ last name, when it actually means Anointed One).

    Also, many traditional terms were mistranslations from the moment they first appeared in English, so we replace them with accurate translations (e.g. Ark of the Covenant should be Chest of Proofs).

    Here are all the common terms and our equivalents, listed alphabetically.


    Angel = Messenger

    The Hebrew, Greek, and Aramaic word for ‘angel’ and ‘messenger’ is the same. Popular imagery of angels depict them with wings and halos. While spirits are depicted with wings in certain visions, in other accounts angels look like ordinary men. Therefore, using ‘messenger’ does not implant a picture in the readers’ mind that may be inaccurate in some situations. Learn more.

    Ark = Chest

    The Bible does not describe what Noah built as a boat or ship, but as an ark. Indeed, it has no sails, no oars, and no rudder, appearing to be nothing more than a large box. Since nobody knows what ark means these days, we use chest. Learn more.

    Ark of the Covenant = Chest of Proofs

    Breastplate (or Breastpiece) of Judgment = Word of Judgment

    Christ = Anointed One

    People think that Christ is Jesus’ last name. It isn’t. It is a Greek term that literally means ‘the anointed one’. So to fix this misunderstanding, we use the term ‘Anointed One’ instead of ‘Christ.’ Learn more.

    Consecrated = Perfect

    Day of Unleavened Bread, The = Day of No Fermentation, The

    In Greek, the word literally means ‘no leaven’, and does not specifically say ‘bread,’ even though that is clearly implied.

    Devil = Slanderer, Opposer, or Evil One

    People think of ‘the Devil’ as a red creature presiding over Hell Fire, with a horns and a pitchforked tail. None of this is from the Bible, so not only do we use different terms, but we also use more accurate terms that reflect the original languages. Learn more.

    Feast (or Festival) of Dedication = Festival of Rededication

    Festival of Tabernacles = Festival of Temporary Structures

    Also called the Festival of Shelters (NLT), or the Feast of Booths (ESV). It’s not the Festival of Tents because, technically, they were probably not just tents as we understand them today.

    Flood = Downpour, Great Downpour

    Garden of Eden = Paradise of Delights

    Gehenna = Garbage Dump

    Hell = Place of the Dead

    Holy Spirit = God’s Breath

    Lucifer = Morning Star (not the Devil)

    Lucifer was never a name for the Slanderer. It was a mistranslation. Learn more.

    New Testament = Christian Era books

    By saying ‘Old Testament’ and ‘New Testament,’ some get the mistaken impression that only the ‘New Testament’ is beneficial today. This is incorrect.

    Old Testament = Jewish Era books

    By saying ‘Old Testament’ and ‘New Testament,’ some get the mistaken impression that only the ‘New Testament’ is beneficial today. This is incorrect.

    Satan = Slanderer

    This is not a name, but a description. It’s a word that literally means Slanderer. Learn more.

    Tabernacle / Tent of Meeting = Tent of Proofs

    Umim and Thummim = Revelation and Truth

    This is not because Umim and Thummim are mistranslations. It is because the Greek Septuagint calls them Revelation and Truth. Since we think that Jewish translators living 2,300 (or so) years closer to these events ought to know better than us today, we use their terminology.