Commentaries contain background information, information about variant readings from different manuscripts, and lots of interesting viewpoints.
A particular Bible translator may have found something that other translators have missed. They also may supply important notes.
These are academic versions of manuscripts that have been checked and researched for variants to produce a high-quality source text. To see what we use, see the manuscripts page.
This software is helpful for searching for verses with particular words or expressions.
Bible codexes and manuscripts
The codexes are the oldest compilations of Bible books. Sometimes it’s necessary to consult individual manuscripts to detect errors and corruptions, although critical editions (see above) are usually more practical.
Early Christian writings
Many early writers wrote about Christianity. Sometimes they quoted the Bible, but also they show how verses were understood in the past.
Other ancient writings
Ancient non-Christian writings tell us more about the situation back then, what people did, and what they believed.
Although our OT is based on the Greek Septuagint, our NT on the Greek and Aramaic texts, sometimes it is useful to consult the Hebrew.
Large parts of the NT may have been originally penned in Aramaic. Even if not, the Aramaic texts would represent a very early translation.
Our Old Testament is primarily based on the Greek Septuagint. Our New Testament is based on both the Greek and Aramaic texts.
These document the occurrences of ancient words in all ancient writings. You can see how the words were originally used.
Written works about Bible translation
Helpful books and courses.