2001 Translation The 2001 Translation :

Click a verse number to see an options menu.

To switch between the spellings Jehovah/Yahweh and Jesus/Yeshua see the preferences section.

Print chapter

2001 Translation

Chapter

Change the font size using your browser settings.

To print the entire Bible book, close this and use your browser’s normal print option.

Your actual print-out will look different, depending on paper size and margin settings.

If the “Send to printer” button does not work, use the Print option in your browser menu.

Search

Recent searches

    Fetching results...

    See some search hints and tips.

    Exodus

    Septuagint text: Our version of this book reads differently to other Bibles. Why? We use the much older Greek Septuagint manuscripts – and most will closely resemble the versions used by many 1st-century Christians, including the Apostles. These older manuscripts escaped the censorship applied to the Hebrew manuscripts. Our translation is created by volunteers, and we are always correcting and refining the text. Learn what [brackets] and other insertions mean.

    About this book Exodus is a history book, law book, and a book describing the items for worship.It was compiled by Moses, probably with the help of secretaries.It covers the time that the Israelites first entered Egypt until the time of the construction of the Tent of Proofs in the desert, which we calculate to be around 1549 BCE.This book contains some long descriptions of the first laws and the construction of the items for worship. These sections may be too difficult for some readers, so if you only wish to read the story, we’ve added editor notes to show you where it begins and ends.The main topics of each law, procedure, and object for worship are marked in bold.

    1

    1These are the names of the Sons of IsraEl that came to Egypt with their father Jacob and their families:2ReuBen,• SimeOn,• Levi,• Judah,3IshSachar,• ZebuLun,• BenJamin,4Dan,• NaphTali,• Gad, and • Asher.5Then [there was] JoSeph [who lived] in Egypt; so altogether, there were 75 of these people who [descended] from Jacob.6[In time], JoSeph, his brothers, and that entire generation died. 7But the children of IsraEl grew and multiplied into a large and strong [nation], and the land helped them to grow.8Then a new king became the ruler over Egypt who didn’t know JoSeph [possibly SobeKemsaf I]. 9And he said to his nation:‘{Look!} The children of IsraEl have [grown tremendously] and they’re now more powerful than we are!10‘So, let’s be crafty in the ways that we deal with them, because if they continue to grow, and then we find ourselves at war, they could side with our enemies!‘And after they beat us in war, they will leave our land!’11So he appointed [governors] over them, whose [job] was to make them do hard labor; and they built fortified cities for PharaOh, including Pithom, RaMesse, and On (the City of the Sun).12But the more they held [the IsraElites] down, the faster they grew.Well, they multiplied so much and grew so strong that the Egyptians hated the children of IsraEl! 13So the Egyptians became tyrants over IsraEl 14and made their lives unbearable by forcing them to work hard by making bricks from clay and working in the fields… Whatever needed to be done.And they were also dealt with violently.15Then the king of Egypt told the midwives that [served] the Hebrews (one was SepPhora and the other was Poua):16‘When you serve as midwives to the Hebrew women and they’re about to give birth, kill [the baby] if it’s a boy, but leave it alone if it’s a girl.’17However, the midwives feared God and wouldn’t do what the king of Egypt told them… They allowed the male [babies] to live. 18So, the king of Egypt called for the midwives and asked them:‘Why haven’t you [killed] the male [babies]?’19And the midwives answered PharaOh, saying:‘Hebrew women aren’t like the women of Egypt, because they give birth before the midwives arrive, so they [already] have their children!’20As a result, God dealt kindly with the midwives, while the [IsraElites] continued to multiply and grow very strong. 21Also, these midwives that feared God were able to start families.22Then PharaOh told all his people:‘Whenever a male is born to the Hebrews, you must throw it into the river… But let the females live.’

    2

    1Now, there was a certain man of the tribe of Levi who married one of the daughters of [his tribe]. 2Then she got pregnant and gave birth to a male child. And after she saw how beautiful the child was, they hid him for three months.3But when they could no longer hide him, his mother got a box for him and coated it with tar, put the child inside, then she set it in the mud by the river, 4and she had his sister keep watch in the distance to see what would happen to him.5Well, PharaOh’s daughter thereafter came down to the river to bathe. And as her handmaids were walking along by the river, they saw the box lying in the mud, so she sent a handmaid out to pick it up... 6And when she opened it, she found the baby inside the box, crying!Well, PharaOh’s daughter felt sorry for it and said:‘This is a Hebrew child!’7Then [the baby’s] sister went up and asked PharaOh’s daughter:‘Would you like me to call a Hebrew [woman] to nurse the child for you?’8And PharaOh’s daughter replied:‘Go!’So the young woman went and called [her] mother.9Then PharaOh’s daughter said to [the mother]:‘Take care of this child and nurse it for me, and I’ll pay you.’So the woman took the child and nursed it. 10And after the boy had grown, she brought him to PharaOh’s daughter and he became her son. [PharaOh’s daughter] named him Moses [Egyptian: Mo-sheh, meaning, to draw], because she said:‘I drew him from the water.’11In time, after Moses had grown, he went to see his brothers, the sons of IsraEl. And as he was observing how bad things were, he noticed an Egyptian beating one of his Hebrew brothers of the children of IsraEl. 12Then he looked around and he didn’t see anyone, so he bludgeoned the Egyptian and buried [his body] in the sand.13Well, on the next day, he noticed two Hebrew men fighting, and he asked the bully:‘Why are you beating your neighbor?’14And he replied:‘Who appointed you to be our ruler and judge? Are you going to kill me like you killed that Egyptian yesterday?’This stunned Moses, and he thought:‘If [he knows], then others will know!’15And when PharaOh found out about it, he tried to have Moses put to death. So Moses withdrew from the face of PharaOh and went to live in the land of MidiAn.Then, upon arriving in the land of MidiAn, he sat down next to a well. 16And nearby, the 7 daughters of the Priest of MidiAn happened to be grazing their father’s sheep.Then, when they came [to the well] to fill their buckets to water the flock, 17some shepherds arrived and [tried to] chase them away. However, Moses stood up and protected them. And thereafter, he drew water for them and watered their sheep.18Well, after they returned to their home, their father (RagouEl) asked them:‘Why have you returned so quickly today?’19And they replied:‘An Egyptian protected us from the shepherds; and then he drew water for us and watered our sheep.’20So [RaguEl] asked his daughters:‘Where is he… Why did you leave the man? Invite him over [for a meal].’21Well [after that], Moses developed a good relationship with the man, and [RaguEl] gave his daughter SepPhoran to be Moses’ wife. 22Then she got pregnant and gave birth to a son, whom Moses named GerSam [meaning, Visitor], for he said:‘I’m a visitor in a strange land.’23After a while, the king of Egypt died. But the children of IsraEl kept groaning and crying because of their hard work. And the cries over their labor ascended to God! 24[He] heard their groaning and God remembered the Sacred Agreement He had made with AbraHam, IsaAc, and Jacob... 25So He [started paying attention] to the children of IsraEl, and He made Himself known to them.

    3

    1It was while Moses was out tending the flock of his father-in-law (His Excellence, the Priest of MidiAn) that he’d led the sheep into the desert to the dry mountain. 2And there, Jehovah’s messenger appeared to him in a flame that was burning in a bush. He saw the flames in the bush, but [the bush] wasn’t really burning.3And Moses said:‘I’ll get closer, so I can see this great sight… To find out why the bush isn’t being burned!’4And when [God] saw him drawing closer to look, the Lord called to him from the bush. He said:‘Moses!‘Moses!’And [Moses] asked:‘What is it?’5And He said:‘Don’t come any closer. Take your sandals off, because you’re standing on holy ground.’6Then He said:‘I am the God of your ancestors… The God of AbraHam, the God of IsaAc, and the God of Jacob.’Well at that, Moses turned his face away, because he was afraid to look at God.7Then the Lord told Moses:‘I’ve seen the hardships that My people are enduring in Egypt, and I’ve heard their cries about their task-masters, so I know what they’re going through.8‘Now, I’ve come down here to free them from the Egyptians and to take them away from that land, to a land that’s good and has plenty of room… A land that’s flowing with milk and honey. It’s the place where the CanaAnites, Chettites, Amorites, Pherezites, Gergeshites, Evites, and Jebusites [live].9‘For, {Look!} the shouting of the children of IsraEl has now reached to Me, and I’ve seen the suffering that the Egyptians are bringing upon them.10‘So now, come; because, I’m going to send you to PharaOh, the king of Egypt, and you’re going to bring My people (the children of IsraEl) out of the land of Egypt.’11But Moses asked God:‘Just who am I that I should go to PharaOh the king of Egypt and bring the children of IsraEl out of that land?’12And God replied:‘I will be with you! This [place] will serve as the sign that I’m sending you.‘Then when you bring My people out of Egypt, you must serve God on this mountain.’13But Moses said to God:‘Look, I’ll go to the children of IsraEl and tell them:The God of our ancestors has sent me to you.‘But they’re going to ask:What is His Name?‘So, what should I tell them?’14And God told Moses:‘I am The Being! Just tell the children of IsraEl that The Being has sent you.’15Then God said to Moses:‘Tell the Sons of IsraEl that Jehovah the God of your ancestors – the God of AbraHam, IsaAc, and Jacob – has sent you to them.‘That has been My Name throughout the ages, and it’s how I shall be remembered from generation to generation.16‘So, go and gather the elders of the children of IsraEl, then tell them that Jehovah, the God of your ancestors, has appeared to you. He’s the God of AbraHam, the God of IsaAc, and the God of Jacob.‘[And report that] He said:I have looked [down] and [seen] all the bad things that are happening to you in Egypt.17‘And tell them that I will take them away from their oppression in Egypt into the land of the CanaAnites, Chettites, Amorites, Pherezites, Gergeshites, Evites, and Jebusites… A land that is flowing with milk and honey.18‘And then they’ll listen to what you have to say.‘After that, you and the elders of IsraEl must go to PharaOh the king of Egypt and tell him this:The God of the Hebrews has called us, so we’re going on a 3-day journey into the desert to offer a sacrifice to our God.19‘However, I know that PharaOh (the king of Egypt) won’t let you go [unless he sees] a mighty hand [of power]. 20So I’ll raise My hand and strike the Egyptians with all the wonders that I [wish to show] to them… And then he will allow you to leave.21‘I will also make [My] people look good in the eyes of the Egyptians, so that when you escape, you won’t leave empty handed.22‘Women will ask their neighbors and landlords for clothing, and for gold and silver [jewelry], which you’ll then put on your sons and your daughters… So you’ll plunder the Egyptians!’

    4

    1Then Moses asked:‘But, what if they don’t listen to me and do what I tell them to do? Or, what if they say, God hasn’t appeared to you… What should I tell them then?’2So the Lord asked him:‘What do you have in your hand?’And he replied:‘My walking stick.’3Then [the Lord] said:‘Throw it on the ground.’Well, when he threw it on the ground it became a snake, and Moses ran from it.4And after that, the Lord told Moses:‘Now, reach out and grab it by the tail.’So [Moses] reached out and grabbed it by the tail, 5and it became a walking stick in his hand once again. [And God continued]:‘That’s why they’ll believe you when you say that the God of your ancestors has appeared to you… The God of AbraHam, and of IsaAc, and of Jacob.’6Then the Lord told him:‘Now, put your hand inside [your robe and touch] your chest.’So, he reached inside and touched his chest; and when he brought his hand out, it was [as white] as snow!7Then [the Lord] said:‘Now, put your hand back in and touch your chest once more.’So, he reached in and touched his chest, and when he brought it out, its color had returned to the regular shade of his flesh!8[Then the Lord said]:‘So, if the first sign doesn’t make them listen to you and believe, the second sign will. 9But if they still won’t listen to you or believe after these two signs, then draw some water from the river and pour it out on the dry ground… And the river water will turn into blood.’10Then Moses said to the Lord:‘I beg you Lord; I’ve not been good at this in the past, and I’ve not become any better at it since You’ve started talking to your servant… I’m a poor speaker and I talk slowly!’11And the Lord asked Moses:‘Who gave man his mouth? Who made both those who can hear and the deaf, as well as those who can see and the blind? Wasn’t it Me… God?12‘Now, go on, and I’ll open your mouth and tell you what to say!’13But Moses continued:‘I beg you Lord, send someone who is more capable!’14Well, this made the Lord very angry with Moses, so He said:‘Look; isn’t Aaron the Levite your brother? I know that he’ll speak for you… Look, he’s coming to meet you, and when he sees you, he’ll be jumping for joy.15‘Then you must talk to him and put My words into his mouth, and I’ll open both of your mouths and tell you what to say. 16Let him speak to the people for you… He will serve as your mouth and you will be the things of God to him.17‘So now, take this walking stick that turned into a snake in your hands and work miracles with it!’18Well thereafter, Moses returned to His Excellence (his father-in-law), and said:‘I’m going to visit my brother in Egypt to see if he’s still living.’And His Excellence said to Moses:‘Go in health.’Well, after some time, the king of Egypt [possibly Kamose] died. 19And the Lord said to Moses (while he was still in MidiAn):‘Now go… Leave for Egypt, because those who wanted to kill you, are dead.’20So Moses took his wife and children, mounted them on his animals, and returned to Egypt. Moses also carried along the walking stick [through which he’d received power] from God.21And the Lord said to Moses:‘When you return to Egypt, consider all the miracles that I’ve given to you, then you must perform these things before PharaOh.‘However, I’ll make him hard-hearted and he will still refuse to send the people away. 22So you must tell PharaOh:This is what Jehovah has said: ‘IsraEl is My firstborn, 23and I’ve told you to send My people away so they can serve Me; however, if you won’t send them away, {Look!} I’ll destroy all your firstborn!’24Well, [during their journey], a messenger of Jehovah met them along the way at an inn, and he wanted to kill [Moses’ son]. 25But SepPhoran grabbed a [sharp] stone and cut off her son’s foreskin.Then she fell at his feet and said:‘See… The blood of my son’s circumcision is flowing!’26So because she said, ‘The blood of my son’s circumcision is flowing,’ he left.27Then the Lord told Aaron:‘Now, go into the desert to meet Moses.’So, he went and met him at the Mountain of God, and they kissed each other. 28And thereafter, Moses told Aaron everything that the Lord had said, why he was being sent, and about all the things that he’d been instructed to do.29So Moses and Aaron went and gathered the elders of the children of IsraEl, 30and Aaron told them everything that God had said to Moses; then he performed the miracles before the people… 31And the people believed and were happy, because God was visiting the children of IsraEl and He had seen how they were being oppressed.So, the people all bowed to their faces before him.

    5

    1Well after that, Moses and Aaron went to PharaOh and said to him:‘This is what Jehovah the God of IsraEl, said:Send My people away, so they can hold a feast to Me in the desert.’2And PharaOh asked:‘Just who is this Jehovah, that I must pay attention to anything He has to say and send the children of IsraEl away? I don’t know Jehovah, and I’m not letting IsraEl go!’3So [Moses and Aaron] said:‘The God of the Hebrews has called us to Him, and we’re going on a 3-day journey into the desert to [offer] sacrifices to our God Jehovah; otherwise, we’re afraid that He might strike us and we’ll die!’4But the king of Egypt replied:‘Why are you, Moses and Aaron, trying to keep people from doing their work? Now, go back and just do your jobs!’5Then PharaOh said [to his people]:‘{Look!} There are huge numbers of them and we can’t allow them to slack off from doing their work!’6And as a result, PharaOh gave orders to those who were in charge to tell their supervisors 7not to give the people any straw for brick-making as they did the day before and three days before that.He said:‘Let them gather and carry the straw for themselves! 8However, they must maintain the quota for the daily brick making… Don’t let up on them, because they’re lazy!‘Why, they came here demanding that we must allow them to [go out and] offer a sacrifice to their God. 9Therefore, make the men’s work much harder, so they’ll pay attention to that instead of to idle chatter!’10Well, the taskmasters and the supervisors acted quickly, and they told the people:‘This is what PharaOh says: I’m not going to give you straw anymore. 11Go get it yourselves! Take it from wherever you can find it… But you must still make the same number of [bricks]!’12So the people were scattered all over the land of Egypt as they gathered stubble for straw. 13And the taskmasters kept pushing them, saying:‘You aren’t meeting the quotas you had when [we were providing] the straw.’14But then the supervisors who were assigned over the children of IsraEl by PharaOh’s governors were whipped… And they were asked:‘Why aren’t you meeting your brick-making quotas as you did yesterday and three days ago?’15Well as a result, the children of IsraEl’s supervisors went to see PharaOh, and asked him:‘Why are you treating your servants this way? 16You don’t give us any straw, but you tell us to make bricks anyhow... And now {Look!} your servants have been whipped! Are you going to allow your people to be injured?’17And he said to them:‘You’re lazy and you’re slackers! For you said, Let us go and offer sacrifices to our God.18‘Now, go to work instead, because you won’t be given any straw… But you must meet the same quota of bricks.’19Well, the children of IsraEl’s supervisors realized that they were in a tight situation, since they’d been told that they still had to deliver the same daily quota of bricks.20So when they saw Moses and Aaron coming to meet them (just after they’d left PharaOh), 21they said:‘May God look down on you and judge you, because you’ve made us so hated by PharaOh and his servants that you’ve put the sword into their hands to kill us!’22Then Moses turned to Jehovah, and said:‘I beg You, O Lord; Why have You caused trouble for these people, and why did You send me?23‘For from the time that I went to PharaOh to speak in Your Name, he’s made things harder for these people… And You still haven’t taken Your people away.’

    6

    1And Jehovah replied to Moses:‘Now you’re going to see what I will do to PharaOh; for he will indeed send them away… With a strong hand and a hard pitch he’ll throw them out of his land!’2And God said to Moses:‘I am Jehovah.3‘I appeared to AbraHam, IsaAc, and Jacob as their God – and wasn’t my name Jehovah declared to them? 4I established My sacred agreement with them [and promised] to give them the land of the CanaAnites… The land where they were visitors and living as strangers.5‘Now, I’ve heard the groaning of the children of IsraEl over the oppressive ways that the Egyptians are keeping them in slavery, and I’ve remembered the sacred agreement [that I made] with them.6‘So, go and tell the children of IsraEl that I am Jehovah and that I will lead them out of the tyranny of the Egyptians and free them from slavery.‘I’ll pay their ransom with a hard pitch and a great judgment, 7then I’ll take them to be My people and I’ll be their God… And they’ll know that I am Jehovah their God who freed them from the tyranny of the Egyptians.8‘Then I’ll bring them into the land that I reached out to give to AbraHam, IsaAc, and Jacob… I’ll give it to them as their inheritance, for I am Jehovah!’9So, that’s what Moses then went and told the Sons of IsraEl.However, they wouldn’t listen to Moses, because of their fear and their hard work. 10So the Lord told Moses:11‘Go and tell PharaOh the king of Egypt to send the children of IsraEl out of his land!’12And Moses replied to the Lord, saying:‘Look, the children of IsraEl didn’t listen to me, so how will I get PharaOh to listen to me? Besides, I’m not a good speaker.’13So the Lord spoke to [both] Moses and Aaron and told them to order PharaOh (the king of Egypt) to send the children of IsraEl out of the land of Egypt.14Now, these were the family heads of each of the houses of [IsraEl at the time]...The sons of ReuBen (IsraEl’s firstborn) were:• Enoch,• PhalLus,• AsRon, andCharmi.They were ReuBen’s children.15The sons of SimeOn were:• JemuEl,• JaMin,• Aod,• JaChin,• SaAr, and • Saul (the son of a Phoenician woman).These were SimeOn’s children.16The sons of Levi (and the family heads) were:• GedSon,• CaAth, and • MeraRi.And Levi lived to be 137 years old.17The sons of GedSon (and the family heads) were:• LoBeni, and• Semei.CaAth’s sons were:18AmBram,• IshSaAr,• ChebRon, and • Ozie.And CaAth lived to be 133 years old.19The sons of MeraRi (and the family heads) were:• MoOli, and • Omusi.20Now, AmBram married his cousin JochaBed (the daughter of his father’s brother), and she gave birth to:• Aaron,• Moses, and • MiriAm (their sister).AmBram [died] when he was 132 years old.21The sons of IshSaAr were:• KorAh,• Naphec, and • ZechRi.22And the sons of OziEl were:• MisaEl,• EliShaphan, and • Segri.23Then Aaron married EliShaBeth, the daughter of AminAdab and the sister of NaAsson, and she gave birth to:• NaDab,• AbiUd,• EliEzer, and • IthaMar.24KorAh’s sons were:• Asir,• ElKana, and • AbiAsar.These were KorAh’s children.25Aaron’s son EliEzer married one of the daughters of PhutiEl, and she gave birth to PhineAs.These are the heads of the family of the Levites, by their generations.26And this is Aaron and Moses, who were told by God to use His power to bring the children of IsraEl out of the land of Egypt.27So, this is what they went and said to PharaOh the king of Egypt (before Aaron and Moses brought the children of IsraEl out of the land of Egypt) 28on the very day that the Lord spoke to Moses.29For the Lord told Moses:‘I am Jehovah! So, speak to PharaOh the king of Egypt and tell him whatever I say to you.’30But Moses replied to the Lord:‘Look, I’m not a good speaker; so how will I get PharaOh to listen to me?’

    7

    1Then the Lord told Moses:‘Look! I’ve made you a god to PharaOh, and your brother Aaron is your Prophet.2‘So, tell PharaOh everything that I’ve told you to say through your brother Aaron… Tell him that he must send the children of IsraEl out of his land!3‘However, I will make PharaOh hardhearted, then I will bring many signs and wonders to the land of Egypt; 4but, PharaOh will still refuse to listen to you.‘Then I will lay My hand upon Egypt and bring My people the children of IsraEl out of their land by My power and with a great vengeance. 5And all the Egyptians will know that I am Jehovah, and that I stretched out My hand towards Egypt and brought the children of IsraEl out of their midst.’6So Moses and Aaron did just as the Lord had commanded them.7Now, Moses was 80 years old, and his brother Aaron was 83 years old when they spoke to PharaOh.8Then the Lord said to Moses and Aaron:9‘If PharaOh says that you must give him a sign or perform a miracle; tell your brother Aaron to throw his walking stick on the ground in front of PharaOh and his servants, and it will become a snake.’10So when Moses and Aaron went in [and stood] before PharaOh and his servants, they did just as the Lord had instructed them. Aaron threw his walking stick before PharaOh and his servants, and it became a snake.11However, PharaOh brought in all the Egyptian wise men, warlocks, and soothsayers, and they used their magic to do the same thing… 12They each threw down their walking sticks and they became snakes... But then, Aaron’s walking stick swallowed down their walking sticks!13Nevertheless, PharaOh’s heart became hard and he refused to listen to what Jehovah had instructed them to say.[Plague #1 – Water into blood]14So, the Lord told Moses:‘Now, PharaOh’s heart has become hard and he won’t let the people go. 15So, approach PharaOh when he goes down to the river tomorrow morning and meet with him there on its bank... Then take [Aaron’s] walking stick that turned into a snake, 16and tell [PharaOh] that Jehovah the God of the Hebrews has sent you to him, and that He says, Send My people away so they can serve Me in the desert! Look, you haven’t listened to Me so far, 17but this is how I’m going to let you know that I am the Lord!‘[Then tell him]: Look; I’m going to slap the water with this walking stick in my hand, and the river water will change into blood. 18And at that, all the fish in the river will die and it’ll stink, so the Egyptians won’t be able to drink water from the river.’19And the Lord continued:‘Then tell your brother Aaron to take his walking stick and hold his arms out over all the water in Egypt (over its rivers, canals, ponds, and any standing water) and they’ll turn into blood... This blood will be throughout the entire land of Egypt… Even in their pottery and wooden jars!’20So Moses and Aaron did just as the Lord commanded them.[Aaron] held out the walking stick and slapped the river right there in front of PharaOh and his servants, and all the river water changed into blood!21Then all the fish in the river died and the river had a foul odor, so the Egyptians couldn’t drink water from it... And there was blood throughout the entire land of Egypt.22However, the Egyptian soothsayers used their magic to do the same thing. So the heart of PharaOh became hard and he wouldn’t listen to them… Which is just what the Lord said [would happen].23Then PharaOh turned around and went back into his palace without looking at anything.24Well, the Egyptians had to dig [wells] around the river to find drinking water, because they couldn’t drink the water from the river. 25And Jehovah’s conquest of the river lasted for 7 days.

    8

    [Plague #2 – Frogs]1Then the Lord told Moses:‘Now go to PharaOh [again] and tell him that this is what Jehovah has said:Send My people away, so they can serve Me. 2And if you don’t send them away, {Look!} I’ll fill your land with frogs… 3the river will teem with frogs, and they’ll get into your houses, into your bedrooms, and onto your beds...[They’ll be] in the homes of your citizens, in the homes of your servants, on your dough, and on your ovens. 4They will also climb on you, your servants, and your people.5And the Lord said to Moses:‘Then, tell your brother Aaron to raise his arms with his walking stick in his hand over the rivers, canals, and pools, to bring up the frogs.’6So when Aaron held his arms out over the waters of Egypt, it did bring up the frogs; and the frogs that he brought up covered the whole land of Egypt.7Well, the Egyptian soothsayers used their magic and they too brought frogs upon the land of Egypt.8But then PharaOh called for Moses and Aaron, and said:‘Pray to Jehovah for me and ask Him to take the frogs away from my people and from me!‘Then I will send [the children of IsraEl] away to offer their sacrifices to Jehovah.’9And Moses said to PharaOh:‘Tell me exactly when I should pray for the frogs to disappear from you, your servants, and your people, [for that’s when they’ll leave] you, your people, and your houses.‘However, they’ll remain in the river.’10And [PharaOh] replied:‘Tomorrow morning.’Then [Moses] said:‘It’ll be just as you’ve said… And then you’ll know that there’s no [God] other than Jehovah. 11For the frogs will be removed from you, your houses, your villages, your servants, and your people. However, they’ll remain in the river.’12And at that, Moses and Aaron left PharaOh.Then [the next morning] Moses called to Jehovah and asked Him to remove the frogs, as PharaOh had requested. 13And Jehovah did just as Moses had asked… The frogs died in the houses, villages, and fields. 14Then they gathered them in piles, which caused the whole land to stink.15Well, when PharaOh saw that there was some relief, his heart became hard again, and he didn’t listen to the things that they told him that Jehovah had said.[Plague #3 – Fleas]16So the Lord told Moses:‘Now, tell Aaron to take his walking stick in his hand and to hit the dirt on the ground; then fleas will cover the men and animals throughout the entire land of Egypt.’17So Aaron stuck out his walking stick and hit the dirt on the ground, and fleas covered the men and the animals… There were fleas on the ground everywhere!18Well, the soothsayers tried to use their magic to do the same thing and bring out the fleas, but they were unable to do so. However, the fleas covered both the men and the animals.19So the soothsayers said to PharaOh:‘This is the finger of God!’But PharaOh’s heart was again hardened and he wouldn’t listen to them and do as Jehovah had said.[Plague #4 – Stable Flies]20So the Lord said to Moses:‘Get up early in the morning and stand before PharaOh as he’s going down to the water. Then you must tell him that this is what Jehovah has said:Send My people away so they can serve Me in the desert. 21For if you won’t let My people go, {Look!} I’m going to send stable flies to you, your servants, your citizens, and into your homes. The houses of the Egyptians will be filled with stable flies wherever they live in the land.22[But this time], I’ll create a marvelous difference in the land of Gesem, where My people are living… There’ll be no stable flies there. Then you’ll know that I am Jehovah, the God of the whole earth, 23when I create a difference between My people and yours!This is going to happen in your land tomorrow!24Well, the stable flies came in huge numbers and they got into the houses of PharaOh, his servants, and everyone in the land of Egypt… The land was virtually destroyed by stable flies!25So PharaOh called Moses and Aaron [again] and said:‘Now, go and offer a sacrifice to Jehovah your God… [but do it] here in this land.’26However, Moses said:‘We can’t do that, because the things we’ll sacrifice to Jehovah our God are considered disgusting by the Egyptians. So if we sacrifice such things in front of the Egyptians, they’ll stone us.27‘Instead, let us travel three days into the desert, and we’ll offer our sacrifices to Jehovah our God there, just as our Lord told us.’28Then PharaOh said:‘Well, you can go and sacrifice to your God in the desert; but, don’t go too far… And pray to Jehovah for me!’29And Moses said:‘Now I’ll leave you and pray to God, so that the stable flies will leave your servants and your citizens tomorrow. But PharaOh… Don’t deceive me again and then refuse to send the people away to sacrifice to Jehovah!’30So Moses left PharaOh and he prayed to God; 31and Jehovah did just as Moses said… He removed all the stable flies from PharaOh, his servants, and his citizens.32However, PharaOh’s heart became hard once again and he wouldn’t send the people away.

    9

    [Plague #5 – Cattle deaths]1So the Lord told Moses:‘Go to PharaOh and tell him that this is what Jehovah the God of the Hebrews has said:Send My people away so they can serve Me! 2If you don’t send My people away and if you prevent them from going, 3{Look!} the Lord will touch the cattle in your fields – the horses, burros, camels, bulls, and sheep – and many will die!4I’ll also show a marvelous difference between [the way I’ll treat] the cattle of the Egyptians and the cattle of the children of IsraEl. None of those who belong to the children of IsraEl will die.’5Then God told him when this would happen. He said:‘I’ll bring it on the land tomorrow.’6And the next day, cattle that belonged to all the Egyptians died, but none of the children of IsraEl’s cattle died.7And when PharaOh saw that none of the cattle that belonged to the children of IsraEl died (not one), his heart became even harder; so he refused to let the people go.[Plague #6 – Blisters]8Then the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying:‘Moses should take handfuls of furnace ashes and throw them into the sky before PharaOh and his servants, 9so it can blow like dust over the entire land of Egypt.‘Then the men and animals throughout all of Egypt will break out with blisters.’10So Moses carried furnace ashes before PharaOh and threw them into the sky… And they caused blisters to break out on both the men and their animals.11Well, the soothsayers were no longer able to stand before Moses, because they were also covered with blisters like everyone else in the land of Egypt.12But Jehovah made PharaOh’s heart even harder, so he wouldn’t listen to them and do what the Lord told him to do.[Plague #7 – Hailstorm]13And the Lord said to Moses:‘Get up early in the morning and stand before PharaOh, then tell him that this is what Jehovah the God of the Hebrews has said:Send My people away so they can serve Me. 14For I’ve been sending all My plagues into your heart and into the hearts of your servants and your people, so you’ll know that there isn’t anyone else like Me in the entire earth.15And now I’m going to raise My hand to strike you and kill your people, wiping them off of the earth. 16For, the very reason that you’ve been allowed to live is so that I might display My strength through you, and so that My Name might be advertised throughout the whole world!17‘You’ve taken great pains to keep My people and to not let them go, haven’t you? 18So look! At this same time tomorrow I’ll bring a hailstorm that will be the worst that Egypt has seen since the time it was founded!19Hurry and gather your cattle, as well as everything else that you have in the fields… All the men and cattle that you can find in the fields... For if they don’t go inside a building, the hail will hit them and kill them!20So, those servants of PharaOh that were afraid of what the Lord said brought their cattle into their homes. 21And those who didn’t pay any attention to what the Lord said left their cattle in the fields.22Then the Lord told Moses:‘Raise your hands to the sky, and there’ll be a hailstorm throughout the entire land of Egypt… On the men, the cattle, and all the plants that are growing on the ground.’23So Moses raised his hands to the sky, and Jehovah sent hail, thunder, and lightning that rolled around on the ground. And this hail from Jehovah rained throughout the entire land of Egypt.24There was hail and there was lightning mixed with hail… It was the greatest hailstorm to hit Egypt in the [history of] that nation! 25The hail landed all over the land of Egypt – on the men, the animals, and the grass in the fields – and it broke all the trees in the fields.26But in the land of Gesem where the children of IsraEl were, there was no hail.27So PharaOh sent for Moses and Aaron, and said:‘I’ve sinned this time. Jehovah is righteous, and my people and I are wicked.28‘Pray to Jehovah for me and have Him stop the thunder, lightning, and the hail; then, I’ll send you away and you won’t have to [live here] anymore.’29And Moses said to him:‘After I leave the city, I’ll raise my hands to Jehovah, and the thunder, lightning, hail, and rain will stop… Then you’ll know that the earth belongs to Jehovah.30‘However, I know that you and your servants still don’t fear Jehovah.’31Well, [Egypt’s] flax and barley was all destroyed, because the barley was fully-grown and the flax had seeds. 32However, the wheat and rye hadn’t been damaged, because they came up later.33Then Moses left PharaOh and [walked] out of the city. And when he raised his hands to Jehovah, the thundering ended, and the rain and hail stopped falling.34But when PharaOh saw that the rain, hail, and thundering had stopped, he continued to sin. He hardened his heart and the hearts of his servants. 35And it was because of this hardened heart that PharaOh refused to send the children of IsraEl away, as Jehovah had instructed him through Moses.

    10

    [Plague #8 – Locusts]1Then the Lord spoke to Moses and said:‘Go to PharaOh [again], because I’ve hardened the hearts of him and his servants so I could bring these signs upon them.2‘[I did this] so you could tell your children and your children’s children of the many ways that I’ve mocked the Egyptians through the wonders I’ve brought upon them, and so that they’ll know that I am the Lord.’3Then Moses and Aaron went before PharaOh and said to him:‘This is what Jehovah, the God of the Hebrews, says:How much longer will you refuse to respect Me?Send My people away, so they can serve Me!4But if you won’t send My people away... {Look!} at this same time tomorrow, I’ll bring huge amounts of locusts to all your borders. 5They’ll cover the entire land, so that you won’t be able to see the ground. They’ll eat everything that the hail has left for you, and chew up every tree that you still have growing in the land.6Your houses, the houses of your servants, and all the houses throughout the land of Egypt will be filled with them. It’ll be something that neither your fathers nor their ancestors have seen from their time until this day.’Then Moses turned and left PharaOh. 7And PharaOh’s servants said to him:‘How much longer are you going to allow them to be a snare to us?‘Send those people away so they can serve their God!‘Don’t you realize that Egypt is [being] destroyed?’8So they went and brought Moses and Aaron back to PharaOh, and he said to them:‘You may go and serve Jehovah your God… But, who will be going with you?’9And Moses replied:‘We’ll be taking the young and the old, along with our sons, daughters, sheep, and bulls, because this is a feast of Jehovah.’10Then [PharaOh] said to them:‘May Jehovah be with you. But if I send you away, must I also [send away] all that you own?‘You have an evil [plan], 11so [I’m] not going to [allow that]! I’ll just allow the men to go and serve your God, because that’s all you really wanted.‘Now, throw them out from before the presence of PharaOh!’12Then the Lord told Moses:‘Raise your hands over the land of Egypt and let the locusts come to the land. They’ll eat every plant on the ground and all the fruit that wasn’t damaged by the hail on the trees!’13So Moses raised his walking stick to the sky, and Jehovah sent a south wind [that blew] all day and all night long... Then the next morning, the south wind brought the locusts, 14sending them throughout the land of Egypt. And there they sat in huge numbers throughout all the borders of Egypt.Never had such locusts been seen before or since! 15They covered the entire ground and they devastated the land. They ate all the plants off the ground and any fruit in the trees that hadn’t been damaged by the hail… Nothing green was left on the trees or in the fields anywhere in the land of Egypt!16Then PharaOh hastily called Moses and Aaron, and said:‘I have sinned before Jehovah your God and against you.17‘[Please] pardon my sin one more time and pray to Jehovah your God… Ask Him to take away this death!’18So Moses left PharaOh and prayed to God; 19then Jehovah sent a strong wind from the sea that blew in the opposite direction, picking up the locusts and throwing them into the Red Sea… And there wasn’t a single locust left anywhere in the land of Egypt.20But Jehovah continued to harden PharaOh’s heart, so he didn’t send the children of IsraEl away.[Plague #9 – Darkness]21Then the Lord told Moses:‘Now lift your hands towards the sky and bring darkness to the land of Egypt… A darkness that can be felt.’22So Moses raised his hands to the sky, and it stormed throughout the land of Egypt for three days… And the sky became totally black!23Well, for the next three days, nobody could see anyone else, so no one even got out of bed. However, all the children of IsraEl had light where they were.24Then PharaOh called Moses and Aaron, and said:‘Now, go and serve your God Jehovah… But you must leave your sheep, your cattle, and your belongings here!’25However, Moses said:‘No! You must allow us the burnt offerings and sacrifices that we’re going to offer to our God Jehovah… 26Our cattle will be going with us!‘We won’t leave a hoof behind, because we’re going to take them to serve Jehovah our God, and we won’t know how we’re supposed to serve Him until we get there.’27But Jehovah kept hardening PharaOh’s heart and he wouldn’t let them go.28So PharaOh said:‘Get away from me, and be careful not to see my face again, because the next time you appear before me, you’re going to die!’29And Moses replied:‘That’s what you’ve said, so I won’t appear in your presence again!’

    11

    1Then the Lord told Moses:‘I’m going to bring one more plague upon PharaOh and Egypt… And he will send you away with everything. In fact, he’ll drive you out!2‘Now, go to the people secretly and tell them to ask their neighbors for clothing, silver, and gold jewelry.’3Well, Jehovah caused his people to be looked upon favorably by the Egyptians and they were willing to lend things to them, because the Egyptians considered Moses a great man… Even greater than PharaOh and his servants.4Then Moses told [the children of IsraEl]:‘This is what the Lord said:About midnight I’ll be going throughout Egypt, 5and all the firstborn in the land will die, from the firstborn of PharaOh that sits on the throne, to the firstborn of the female slave that sits by the mill, as well as the firstborn of all the cattle.6Then a cry will [be heard] throughout the land of Egypt such as has never been heard before and will never be heard again!7However, among the children of IsraEl, not even a dog will snarl at a man or an animal. That’s when you’ll see the great difference that Jehovah will make between the Egyptians and IsraEl!8For they’ll then be your servants… They’ll come to [you] and bow, saying, ‘Leave, both you and all the people whom you’re in charge of.’ And that’s when [you’ll] leave.’9Meanwhile, Moses had left PharaOh [feeling very] angry. And the Lord told Moses:‘PharaOh isn’t going to listen to you anymore, so now I’m going to bring great signs and wonders to the land of Egypt.’10Yes, even though Moses and Aaron had been bringing all these signs and wonders to the land of Egypt and to PharaOh, Jehovah kept hardening PharaOh’s heart, so he wouldn’t listen and send the children of IsraEl out of the land of Egypt.

    12

    [Plague #10 – Death of the firstborn]1Then the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron there in the land of Egypt, and said:2‘This will be your 1st month. It’s to be the first one [in your] year.3‘So, tell the whole gathering of the children of IsraEl that on the 10th day of this month, each man should select a lamb for his household (depending on the size of his family). 4And if there are just a few in his house (too few [to eat a whole] lamb), they may go to [the home of] a nearby neighbor.‘They are to figure out how many people there’ll be, and then calculate how much lamb they’ll eat.5‘So, choose a perfect male yearling lamb from [your herd] of lambs and kids, 6and keep it nearby until the 14th day of this month.‘Then the whole gathering of the children of IsraEl must slaughter [their lambs] towards the evening, 7and they must gather the blood and splash it on the top and both sides of the doorframes of the houses where they’ll be eating [the lamb].8‘Then that night, they must roast the flesh over a fire and eat it with fermentation-free bread and bitter herbs.9‘Now, you must not eat it raw or boiled in water, just roasted over a fire with the head, feet, and extremities. 10Nothing should be left over until morning, and you shouldn’t break any of its bones.‘Then, any leftovers must be burned in the fire.11‘And this is how you must eat it:‘With your thighs covered for work, your sandals on your feet, and your walking sticks in your hands.‘You must eat it quickly, because it’ll be Jehovah’s Passover. 12For I’ll go throughout the land of Egypt that night and strike all the firstborn in that land (both the men and their animals), and I’ll bring My vengeance upon all the gods of Egypt… I am Jehovah!13‘Now, this blood will be the sign that you’re inside of each house; for when I see the blood, I’ll protect you, and you won’t be a part of the plague of destruction when I strike the land of Egypt.14‘You must always remember this day and keep it as a feast to Jehovah through all your generations… [observance of] this feast will be the law throughout the ages.15‘You must eat fermentation-free bread for 7 days.‘And starting on the 1st day, you must remove all the fermentation from your homes. For if anyone eats fermentation between the 1st and 7th days, that person must be destroyed in IsraEl.16‘The 1st day will be called holy, and the 7th day will be your holy day when you aren’t to do any hired work.‘The only work that you may do will be for the things that you require.17‘You must observe this commandment, because this is the day that I will use My great power to bring you out of the land of Egypt… You must make this day a law throughout the ages for every generation!18‘You must eat fermentation-free bread from the evening of the 14th day of the 1st month until the evening of the 21st day.19‘Fermentation must not be found in your homes during those 7 days, and whoever eats anything with fermentation must have his life cut off from the gathering of IsraEl and he will be self-condemned in the land.‘This applies to the native residents of your land and your neighbors (converts). 20Yes, nobody should eat anything that has fermentation… Only fermentation-free bread may be eaten in any of your homes.’21Then Moses called all the elders of the children of IsraEl and told them:‘Go find yourselves a lamb (according to your family needs) and slaughter the Passover.22‘Then [cut] bunches of hyssop branches and dip them into some of the blood next to the door, and touch it to the upper part and both sides of the door frame… With this blood that’s by the door.‘Thereafter, no one should go outside the door of his house until morning, 23for the Lord will pass over you [as He] strikes the Egyptians… He will see the blood on the doorframes and the Lord will pass over that door, then He won’t allow the destroyer to enter your homes to strike you.24‘Now, keep this as a Law for yourselves and for your descendants throughout the ages!25‘And when you enter the land that Jehovah has promised to give you, you must keep on doing this.26‘Then if your sons should ever ask:Why are we doing this?27‘You should tell them:The Passover is a sacrifice to Jehovah for when He protected the homes of the children of IsraEl in Egypt and He struck the Egyptians, but [passed over] our homes.’28Well thereafter, the people bowed to their faces, then the children of IsraEl went and did exactly as Jehovah had instructed Moses and Aaron.29It was midnight when Jehovah struck all the firstborn in the land of Egypt… From the firstborn of PharaOh that was sitting on the throne, to the firstborn of the female slave that was sitting in a dungeon, and to the firstborn of all the cattle.30So, PharaOh woke up that night (as did his servants and all the Egyptians) and there was a lot of screaming throughout the entire land of Egypt; for someone had died in every home.31As a result, PharaOh called Moses and Aaron that night and told them this:‘Get up and leave us, both you and the children of IsraEl! Go and serve your God Jehovah as you’ve asked, 32and take your sheep and bulls with you.‘But please bless me… I beg you!’33All the Egyptian people also urged them to leave their land quickly, because they were saying:‘We’re all going to die!’34So the children of IsraEl took all their bread dough that hadn’t fermented yet and wrapped it in cloths, and carried it on their shoulders.35Then, following Moses’ instructions, they asked the Egyptians for clothing, as well as for items of silver and gold. 36And because Jehovah had caused the Egyptians to view them favorably, they [gave them these things]… So they plundered the Egyptians.37Then the children of IsraEl got up and left RaMesse, traveling towards to SocChoth (some 600,000 men on foot) with everything they owned, 38along with a huge number of others who left with them, as well as with their sheep, bulls, and many cattle.39[And when they got there], they baked the dough that they’d brought from Egypt into fermentation-free loaves (there was still no fermentation in the dough), because the Egyptians hadn’t allowed them to stay any longer. For, since they’d been literally thrown out, they hadn’t been allowed enough time to properly prepare for their journey.40Now, even though it had been 430 years that the children of IsraEl lived in the land of CanaAn and in the land of Egypt, 41the whole army of Jehovah left the land of Egypt that [single] night!42And since this was [the night] that they kept watching for Jehovah to bring them out of the land of Egypt, all the children of IsraEl were to observe it as a night of watch to Jehovah throughout all their generations.43Then the Lord told Moses and Aaron:‘This is the Law regarding the Passover:‘No stranger may eat it, 44and any slave or servant that you buy must be circumcised before he can eat it.45‘However, visitors and people you hire can’t eat it. 46It must be eaten in one house, because you can’t carry the flesh outside of the house… And no bones should be broken.47‘The entire gathering of the children of IsraEl must continue to do this.48‘And if any converts come and want to observe the Passover to Jehovah, you must circumcise all their males before they can [partake of] the sacrifice; for thereafter, they’ll be treated as residents in the land.‘However, no one uncircumcised may eat it.49‘So, there’ll be just one Law, and it’ll apply to both the native residents and to those who come to be converts among you.’50Then the children of IsraEl did exactly as Jehovah had instructed Moses and Aaron... 51And that was the day Jehovah brought the children of IsraEl out of the land of Egypt with all their armies.[Editor note: God now begins to give the first laws to IsraEl. The story continues in Exodus 13:17.]

    13

    1Then the Lord told Moses:2‘All the first-fathered and firstborn that open any womb among the children of IsraEl, whether of men or animals, are to be set aside as holy to Me, for they are now Mine!’3And Moses said to the people:‘Remember this day! [It’s the one] when you were brought out of the land of Egypt and out of the house of slavery; for, Jehovah brought you out of there with His strong hand.‘So, fermentation must not be eaten 4on this day of new grain that you left. 5And when Jehovah your God brings you into the land of the CanaAnites, Chettites, Amorites, Evites, Jebusites, Gergeshites, and Pherezites, which He swore to your ancestors that He would give you (a land that’s flowing with milk and honey), you must perform the same service during this month.6‘You will all eat fermentation-free bread for 6 days, and the 7th day will be a feast day to Jehovah… 7So, you’ll eat fermentation-free bread for 7 days.‘Nothing with fermentation may be seen among you, nor may you have fermentation inside all of your borders.8‘And you must say to your sons on this day:This is how Jehovah dealt with me as I was leaving Egypt.9‘Let this always serve as a sign on your hand and as something in front of your eyes to remember, so that Jehovah’s Law will always stay on your [lips]! Because, Jehovah God brought you out of Egypt with His mighty hand.10‘Therefore, each year at this same time and season, you must observe this Law.11‘And when Jehovah your God brings you into the land of the CanaAnites, which He swore to your ancestors that he would give to you; 12you must set aside every male who [first] opens a womb to Jehovah.‘This includes those among your flocks and herds of cattle… As many as you have. [All the firstborn] males must be [set aside as] holy to Jehovah!13‘However, when it comes to your burros; you must offer a sheep instead… You can’t exchange it, you must buy it back [from Jehovah], and you must buy back every firstborn son.14‘And if your son should ever ask you:Why are we doing this?‘You must tell him:Jehovah brought us out of Egypt and out of the house of slavery with His mighty hand. 15And when PharaOh’s heart hardened and [he refused] to send us away, [God] slaughtered all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both the men and the animals.So that’s why we offer every male that [first] opens a womb to Jehovah, and that’s why we buy back all of our firstborn sons.16‘Therefore, may this be a sign on your hand and something that’s always fixed in front of your eyes… Because, Jehovah brought you out of Egypt with His mighty hand.’[Editor note: The story continues here.]17Well, after PharaOh had sent the people away, God didn’t lead them towards the land of the Philistines (even though it wasn’t far away), because God said:‘[I’m doing this to keep] the people from having a change of heart when they see war, and from thereafter returning to Egypt.’18So God led them around the desert towards the Red Sea.It was the 5th generation of the children of IsraEl that left the land of Egypt. 19And Moses took JoSeph’s bones along, because [JoSeph] had made the children of IsraEl swear, saying:‘God will surely visit you, so you must carry my bones back with you.’20Thereafter, the children of IsraEl left SucCoth and went to camp at Othom, which is near the desert.21God led them there using a tall column of clouds during the day (to show them the way) and a tall column of fire during the night... 22The column of clouds was there all day long, every day, and the column of fire was always there in front of the people all night long.

    14

    1Then the Lord said to Moses:2‘Tell the children of IsraEl to turn around and set up camp in front of the village of the MagDol (the watchtower)… Between it and the sea, across from BeEl-SepPhon. Camp there in front of them, next to the sea. 3For PharaOh will say to his people:The children of IsraEl are just wandering around in the land, and now they’re boxed in!4‘Then I’ll harden PharaOh’s heart, and he will chase after you. So, PharaOh and his whole army will bring glory to Me, and all the Egyptians will know that I am Jehovah.’And that’s exactly what happened.5Well, a report was carried to the king of the Egyptians that the people had run away. And this changed the hearts of PharaOh and his servants against the [children of IsraEl], and they started asking:‘What have we done by allowing the children of IsraEl to go, rather than having them [stay here and] serve us?’6So PharaOh prepared his chariots and took his [whole army] with him… 7600 of their best chariots, the entire Egyptian cavalry, and all his generals!8And it was because Jehovah had hardened the hearts of PharaOh (the king of Egypt) and his servants that he chased after the children of IsraEl. For the children of IsraEl allowed them the upper hand, 9and when the Egyptians caught up with them, they found them camped next to the sea.Well, there was all of PharaOh’s cavalry, chariots, horsemen, and entire army at a village near BeEl-SepPhon! 10And as PharaOh approached, the children of IsraEl could see the Egyptians coming up behind them, which terrified them, so they started calling out to Jehovah.11And at that, they asked Moses:‘Aren’t there enough graves in the land of Egypt so that you had to bring us out here to be killed in the desert?‘What have you done to us by taking us out of Egypt?12‘Wasn’t it enough that we told you back in Egypt to leave us alone so that we could keep on serving the Egyptians?‘For, it would have been better for us to serve the Egyptians than to have us die here in this desert!’13But Moses said to the people:‘Don’t be afraid!‘Stand here and watch the salvation that comes from Jehovah – through the things that He will do for us on this day.‘Do you see all those Egyptians today? You won’t see them again in this age, 14because Jehovah is going to fight for you and bring peace to you!’15Then the Lord asked Moses:‘Why are they shouting to Me?‘Speak to the children of IsraEl and tell them to continue on!16‘Just lift your walking stick and raise your hands over the sea, and it’ll split open… Then you can [lead] the children of IsraEl across on dry land through the midst of the sea!17‘And after that, {Look!} I’ll harden the hearts of PharaOh and all the Egyptians, and they’ll chase after you… For, that’s when PharaOh, his army, his chariots, and all his horses will glorify Me... 18Yes, everyone in Egypt will know that I am Jehovah when I’m glorified by PharaOh, his chariots, and his horses.’19So immediately thereafter, the messenger of God who had been traveling in front of the camp of the children of IsraEl went around to its rear… For the column of clouds moved to the rear and stayed behind them, 20between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of IsraEl.And as it was standing there between them, it started to get dark… In fact, the night became so black that the [Egyptian army] couldn’t come any closer all-night long.21Then when Moses lifted his arms over the sea, the Lord pushed the water back with a strong south wind [that blew] all night long. This dried the seabed and it kept the water divided... 22So the children of IsraEl walked down through the midst of the sea on dry land, as the walls of water stood to their right and to their left.23But then the Egyptians went in and chased after them… All of PharaOh’s horses, chariots, and horsemen also went [down into] the midst of the sea.24Well, it was during the morning watch that Jehovah looked at the Egyptians through the columns of fire and clouds, and [He created] trouble in their camp, 25for the wheels on their chariots sank to their axels, making them very hard to pull.And the Egyptians started saying:‘Let’s run from the face of IsraEl, because Jehovah is fighting for them and against the Egyptians!’26Then the Lord told Moses:‘Now, stretch your arms out over the sea and let the water fall back into its place… Let it cover the Egyptian chariots and their riders.’27So Moses stretched his arms out over the sea, and the water returned to its place around daybreak. The Egyptians tried to run from the water, but Jehovah just kept shaking them back into the midst of the sea!28Yes, it returned and covered the chariots and their riders, along with the whole army of PharaOh that followed them into the sea, leaving no survivors.29Yet, the children of IsraEl had been able to cross through the midst of the sea on dry land with the water standing like walls on their right and on their left.30So Jehovah saved IsraEl from the hands of the Egyptians that day, and IsraEl could see the Egyptians lying dead on the shore. 31And after IsraEl had witnessed Jehovah’s mighty hand in the things that He did to the Egyptians, they started fearing Jehovah… Trusting in God and in His servant Moses.

    15

    1Thereafter, Moses and the children of IsraEl sang this song to God:‘Let us sing to Jehovah;For He’s been glorified.‘The horses and riders He’s tossed in the sea…2He’s been our protector and helper,And He has brought us salvation.‘This is my God and I’ll praise Him…He’s the God of my fathers and I’ll hold Him high.3He’s the Lord who crushes with war;Jehovah is His [Great] Name.4‘Into the sea, He’s thrownThe army and chariots of PharaOh.It swallowed his best mounted generals,5And He covered them up with the water,Where they sank to the bottom like stones.6‘The strength of Your right hand, O God,Has now proven its glory.For, with Your right hand, O God,You’ve shattered all of Your enemies.7‘In Your glory, You’ve smashed those who hate us,As You sent them Your rage,Which has now consumed them like stubble.8‘By the spirit of Your rage, the waters had split…The waters stood firm, like a wall…You banked the waves in the midst of the sea.9‘But our enemies said:We’ll chase them down,Then divide their things and bring ourselves joy.We’ll destroy with our swords…With our mighty hands, we’ll beat them.10‘But then, [Jehovah] sent out His wind,And the sea covered them over…They sank in the waters like lead.11‘So, who among gods is like You, O Lord…To whom can You be compared?For Your holy ways bring glory to You,And we marvel at all of Your glories.12‘You raised Your right hand with wonders,For the earth has swallowed them down.13But You righteously guided those whom You bought(Those whom You called by Your might)To the Holy Place of Your rest.14‘But, when the nations heard about this,They all became quite enraged…Birth pangs fell on the Philistines,15And the princes of Edom and MoAb;Then, all their chiefs ran away.They each started to tremble,And all in CanaAn just melted away.16‘May they shake in fear of the strength of Your arm,And may they become like the stones, O Lord,Until all Your people have passed them by…Until those You’ve purchased have passed them.17‘Now, take us and plant us in the mountains we’ll inherit,And in the homes You’re preparing, O Lord…In the place of safety, prepared by Your hands.18For, Jehovah reigns throughout the ages,And throughout the ages of ages.19‘PharaOh’s horses sank into the sea,Along with his chariots and horsemen.Then, they were covered with water,Where the children of IsraEl had walked on dry landThrough the midst of the sea.’20Then the Prophetess MiriAm (Aaron’s sister) picked up her tambourine, and all the other women went to get their tambourines, and they started dancing.21MiriAm led them, singing:‘Let us sing to Jehovah;For, He’s been glorified.The horses and riders He’s tossed in the sea…’22Well thereafter, Moses led the children of IsraEl away from the Red Sea and into the desert of Sur. But after [traveling] through the desert for three days, they hadn’t found any water to drink. 23And when they got to MerRha (Bitterness), they couldn’t drink the water there, because it was bitter. (That’s why [Moses] named that place Bitterness).24Then the people started complaining about Moses, asking:‘What are we going to drink?’25So Moses called to Jehovah, and the Lord showed him a tree, which [Moses] threw into the water… And the water became sweet. This is also the place where [God] gave him His Laws and decisions, and where He showed His approval.26For [the Lord] said:‘If you’ll listen to the voice of Jehovah your God, if you’ll do the things that please Him, obey His Commandments, and keep all His Laws... I won’t bring any of the [plagues] upon you that I brought upon the Egyptians!‘For I am Jehovah, the God who provides you with healing.’27Then, when they arrived at AiLim, they found 12 springs of water and 70 branching palm trees, so they camped there by the water.

    16

    1Thereafter, they left AiLim, and the entire gathering of the children of IsraEl traveled into the Sin Desert, which is between AiLim and SinAi. And on the 15th day of the 2nd month from their leaving the land of Egypt, 2the entire gathering of the children of IsraEl [once again] started complaining to Moses and Aaron.3They told them:‘We would rather have died [with those who were] struck by Jehovah in the land of Egypt, back when we could sit by the stew pots and eat all the bread we wanted!‘But now you’ve brought us out into this desert just to starve us all to death!’4And the Lord said to Moses:‘Look! I’ll rain bread upon you from the skies!‘Then the people will go out and gather their allotment for each day, so I can test them to see whether they’ll follow My Law... 5For on the 6th day they must gather all that they can, and it’ll be double that which they could gather on the previous days.’6So Moses and Aaron spoke to the entire gathering of the children of IsraEl, saying:‘This evening you’ll realize that it was Jehovah that brought you out of the land of Egypt; 7and tomorrow morning you’ll see the glory of the Lord, since He’s heard you complaining against Him… And what are we, that you should keep complaining about us?’8Then Moses continued, saying:‘This evening, Jehovah will give you meat to eat; and in the morning, He will provide enough bread to satisfy you.‘For Jehovah has heard all the complaints that you’ve made against us… Yet, what are we? You aren’t complaining against us, but against God!’9And Moses said to Aaron:‘Now, tell the entire gathering of the children of IsraEl that they must go over and approach God, since He’s heard all their complaining!’10So, after Aaron said this to them, they all turned and faced the desert… And the glory of the Lord appeared in a cloud!11Then the Lord spoke to Moses and said:12‘I’ve heard all the children of IsraEl’s complaining, so tell them:This evening you’ll eat meat, and in the morning you’ll have enough bread to satisfy you… And then you’ll know that I am Jehovah your God.13Well that evening, a [huge flock] of quail flew in and covered the camp!14And the next morning, after the dew around about the camp had dried; {Look!} on the surface of the desert (lying there like frost) was small things that looked like white coriander seeds... 15And when the children of IsraEl saw them, they asked each other:‘What is this (heb. man-nah)?’ Because, they didn’t know what it was.And Moses told them:16‘This is the bread that the Lord has given you to eat… It’s what Jehovah has approved.‘So, every man should gather 1/3 of a bushel for each person in his family. You and those who are living with you should go out and gather it.’17And that’s what the children of IsraEl did.Although some gathered more and others gathered less, 18the ones who gathered the full 1/3 of a bushel didn’t have any leftovers, and those who gathered less never went hungry.So, they all gathered just what their households required.19Then Moses told them:‘Now, none of you may save any of this for the next morning.’20However, many of them wouldn’t listen to Moses, and they tried to keep it until the following morning… But by then it had worms and it smelled… And all of this irritated Moses.21So each morning, everyone would collect all that they needed, and everything melted after the sun went down. 22Then on the 6th day, they gathered twice as much as they needed… 2/3 of a bushel per person.Well, all the chiefs of their gathering thereafter came and reported what was happening to Moses. 23And Moses asked:‘Didn’t the Lord tell us that tomorrow is the Sabbath… A holy [day of] rest to Jehovah?‘Therefore, bake all that you can bake and boil all that you can boil, so that the leftovers can be stored for tomorrow!’24[So on the 6th day], they stored the leftovers until the next morning, just as Moses told them, and it didn’t stink and there weren’t any worms in it.25[And then the next day], Moses said:‘This is what you must eat today; for since this day is a Sabbath to Jehovah, you won’t find any of it out in the fields.26‘You must collect it for 6 days, but because the 7th day is a Sabbath, there won’t be any then.’27However, on the 7th day some of the people still went out to collect it, but they couldn’t find any. 28So the Lord said to Moses:‘How long are they going to fail to listen to My commands and [obey] My laws?29‘Look; I’ve given them this day as the Sabbath, and I gave them enough bread to last for two days on the 6th day. So from now on, they must all just sit there in their homes… Don’t allow anyone to leave his place on the 7th day!’30Well thereafter, the people started keeping the Sabbath on the 7th day.31The children of IsraEl called this [food], manna.It looked like white coriander seeds and tasted like crackers and honey.32Then Moses said:‘This is what Jehovah has commanded:‘We are to collect 1/3 of a bushel of manna and set it aside so that future generations can see the bread that you ate in the desert after Jehovah led you out of the land of Egypt.’33And he told Aaron:‘Take a gold pot and fill it with a full 1/3-of-a-bushel of manna, then store it away for God and keep it for future generations.’34So, just as the Lord told Moses, Aaron stored it away as a testimony.35As a result, the children of IsraEl ate manna for 40 years. They ate manna until they got to the land of Phoenicia.36Now, a homer (1/3 of a bushel) was 1/10th of an ephah (3 bath measures).

    17

    1Thereafter, the entire gathering of the children of IsraEl left the Sin Desert, following the order of their camps, and the Lord told them to camp in RaphiDin.However, there was no water for the people to drink in this place, 2so they started shouting at Moses and saying:‘Give us water to drink!’And Moses asked them:‘Why are you shouting at me, and why are you asking Jehovah to prove Himself?3Well, the people were very thirsty, and they complained again to Moses, saying:‘What’s the point? Did you bring us up out of Egypt to kill us along with our children and cattle with thirst?’4Then Moses called to Jehovah, and said:‘What should I do with these people… Before long they’ll stone me!’5And Jehovah replied to Moses:‘Go before the people and bring along some of their elders. Then take the walking stick that you slapped the [Nile] River with 6and go to the rock in the dry place (Horeb) where {Look!} I’ll be standing before you!‘[Then you must] strike the rock and water will pour out of it, so the people will [have something to] drink.’Well thereafter, Moses did this in front of the sons of IsraEl. 7And then he named that place, ‘Proof and Shouting,’ because of all the shouting of the children of IsraEl, [as they demanded that] Jehovah prove Himself.For they’d asked:‘Is Jehovah among us or not?’8Then the Amalekites came to fight against IsraEl in RaphiDin. 9And Moses said to JoShua:‘Choose your best men and form battle lines against the Amalekites tomorrow... {Look!} I’ll be standing on top of the hill with the walking stick of God in my hands.’10So JoShua did just as Moses told him. He went out and formed his army into battle lines against the Amalekites; then Moses, Aaron, and Or went up to the top of the hill.11Well, whenever Moses raised his arms, IsraEl would be superior; but when he let them down, the Amalekites were more successful. 12But soon Moses’ arms got tired, so they found a rock and had him sit on top of it; then Aaron and Or supported his arms on either side, holding them there until the sun set.13So, JoShua was able to drive the Amalekites and all their people away by slaughtering them with swords.14Then the Lord told Moses:‘Write this in a scroll, so it’ll be remembered.‘[Also,] tell JoShua that I’m going to totally blot out all memory of the Amalekites from under the skies!’15Well after that, Moses built an altar to Jehovah there, and he named it ‘Jehovah is My Refuge,’ 16because Jehovah was secretly waging war against all generations of the Amalekites.

    18

    1Meanwhile, His Excellence (the priest of MidiAn, Moses’ father-in-law) heard of all that Jehovah had done for his people IsraEl by bringing them out of Egypt.2So His Excellence [went to see Moses], bringing along Moses’ wife SepPhora (since [Moses] had sent her 3and her two sons away).[One of his sons] was named GerSam [meaning, Visitor], because, as [Moses] said:‘I was a visitor in a strange land,’4And [the other was named] EliEzer [meaning, My God is my Helper], because as [Moses] said:‘The God of my fathers is my helper and He rescued me from the hands of PharaOh.’5His Excellence then took [Moses’ family] to him in the desert… To his camp on the Mountain of God. 6And when Moses was told, ‘Look! His Excellence (your father-in-law) is coming and he’s bringing your wife and two sons with him,’ 7Moses went out to meet them.Then [Moses] bowed low before his father-in-law and kissed him, then they hugged each other, and he led them into his tent, 8where Moses told his father-in-law about everything that Jehovah had done to PharaOh and to the Egyptians for IsraEl’s sake, as well as about all the things that had happened to them along the way, and of the way Jehovah had rescued them from the hands of PharaOh and the Egyptians.9Well, His Excellence was amazed by all the good things that Jehovah had done for them by rescuing them, 10and he said:Praise Jehovah, because He rescued them from the hands of PharaOh and the Egyptians!11‘Now I know that Jehovah is higher than all [other] gods; for He did this to those who were treating [the children of IsraEl so poorly].’12Then His Excellence presented whole burnt offerings and sacrifices for God, and Aaron and all the elders of IsraEl came to eat bread before God, along with Moses’ father-in-law.13Well, the next morning, Moses sat down to [serve as] judge for the people, and they [kept coming to] him all day long. 14Then when His Excellence noticed all that [Moses was doing], he asked:‘Why are you sitting there all by yourself as the people come to you from morning until night?’15And Moses replied:‘The people are coming to me to receive God’s decisions. 16So whenever they have any disagreement, they come to me and I judge each [case].‘I teach them the Laws of God and [I judge by] His Laws.’17However, Moses’ father-in-law told him:‘You aren’t handling this thing right, 18for this will just wear you down… And your people will get tired of it too. You won’t be able to keep on doing this all by yourself.19‘So, listen to me; I’m going to tell you what to do, and God will be with you.‘You can be [the one] that [leads] the people in matters that pertain to God, and you can take their problems before God. 20You should also [teach] them God’s [ways] and His Laws, and show them how to act and the things that they should be doing.21‘But, keep an eye out among the people for capable, righteous men who fear God… Righteous men who hate pride. Then appoint them as chiefs over thousands, chiefs over hundreds, chiefs over fifties, and chiefs over tens… 22Let them spend all their time judging.‘And whenever a problem is too great, then they should bring it to you. Let them help you to free up your [time] by judging the smaller cases.23‘And if you do that, God will strengthen you, you’ll [have time to take care of more important matters], and these people will [return to their tents] more peacefully.’24Well, Moses paid attention to his father-in-law’s suggestion and did everything that he said. 25He chose capable men throughout all of IsraEl and made them chiefs of thousands, chiefs of hundreds, chiefs of fifties, and chiefs of tens.26Then they judged the people, and whenever a matter was too weighty, they brought it to Moses, while they judged the lighter matters.27Then after that, Moses [said goodbye] to his father-in-law, and [His Excellence] returned to his own land.

    19

    1Well, it was on that same day (in the 3rd month after the children of IsraEl had fled the land of Egypt) that they arrived in the SinAi desert.2They left RaphiDin and traveled through the desert to SinAi, and IsraEl set up camp there in front of the mountain.3Then Moses climbed the Mountain of God, and God called to him on the mountain, saying:‘You must say this to the house of Jacob and report [My words] to the children of IsraEl:4You’ve seen all that I’ve done to the Egyptians, and how I lifted you as on the wings of eagles and drawn you close to Me. 5Now, if you’ll listen to what I say and keep My Sacred Agreement, you’ll be a special people to Me that will be higher than all other nations!And because the whole earth is Mine, 6you’ll become My holy nation and a Kingdom of Priests.‘Now, [go] and tell this to the children of IsraEl!’7So Moses went back and called the people’s elders, then he laid out what God had said exactly as He said it. 8And all the people replied unanimously, saying:‘We will listen to, and obey, everything that God has said!’And Moses reported their words back to God.9Then the Lord told Moses:‘{Look!} I’m going to come to you in a column of clouds so the people can hear Me speaking to you. And after that, throughout the age, they’ll believe you.’And so, Moses reported back to the people about what the Lord had said.10Thereafter, the Lord said this to Moses:‘Go down and give these solemn instructions to the people:‘They must cleanse themselves both today and tomorrow, and they must wash their clothes.11‘Make sure they’re ready by the 3rd day, because on the 3rd day, the Lord will descend upon Mount SinAi before all the people.12‘Also, be sure that they keep themselves some distance from the mountain. Tell them:Be careful not to step on any part of the mountain or to touch any part of it. For anyone who touches the mountain will surely die!13No hand should touch it, and anyone who does so must be pelted with rocks or shot through with arrows… Whether it’s a man or an animal, [he or she] must not be allowed to live!‘People may only climb the mountain after the voices, trumpeting, and clouds are gone.’14So Moses went down the mountain to the people. He then cleansed them and [had them] wash their clothes.15He told them:‘Get ready… And for the next three days, no [man] should even get close to a woman [and so on]...’16Then, as the morning of the 3rd day dawned, there were voices, there was lightning, there was a dark cloud on SinAi, and they heard a trumpeting sound that was so loud that the people in the camp were trembling!17And that’s when Moses led the people out of the camp to meet God.Well, they were all standing there, close to the camp, 18and then the whole mountain started to smoke, because The God had descended upon it in fire… And the smoke kept rising as though it [was coming from] a furnace, which left the people in awe!19Then the trumpeting got even louder as Moses spoke, and God started answering him with a voice… 20Yes, the Lord descended to the top of Mount SinAi and called to Moses, [telling him to come to Him] on top of the mountain!So Moses went up, 21and God then said this to Moses:‘Go down and warn the people [again] not to approach to see God, for this will cause many of them to [die]! 22And make sure that any Priests who come close to Jehovah God have cleansed themselves, so He doesn’t [have to] destroy some of them!’23Then Moses said to God:‘The people won’t be able to approach Mount SinAi, because You warned us, saying, Set boundaries around the mountain and make it holy.’24And at that, the Lord told him:‘Now, go down [the mountain] and bring Aaron back up here with you... But don’t allow the Priests or the people to force their way up to God, for fear that Jehovah will destroy them!’25So Moses went [back] down to the people and reminded them [once again].

    20

    1Then the Lord said all of this:2‘I am Jehovah… I am your God who brought you out of the land of Egypt and out of the house of slavery.3[#1] You must have no gods other than Me.4[#2] You must not make images for yourselves of anything in the skies above, on the earth below, or of things that live in the water or under the ground... 5You must not bow before them or serve them; for I, Jehovah your God, am a zealous God, and I bring the sins of the ancestors upon the children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren of those who hate Me.6‘Yet, I’m merciful to the thousands who love Me and keep My Commandments.7[#3] You must not misuse the Name of your God Jehovah; for Jehovah your God won’t forgive those who misuse His Name.8[#4] Keep the Sabbath day and make it holy...9‘You may work and get everything done in 6 days. 10However, the 7th day is the Sabbath of your God Jehovah, and you must do no work… Not you, nor your sons, your daughters, your male servants, your female servants, your oxen, your burros, any of your cattle, nor any strangers who are visiting among you!11‘For after Jehovah made the skies, the lands, the seas, and everything in them, He rested on the 7th day. Then Jehovah blest the 7th day and made it holy.12[#5] Honor your father and mother, as Jehovah your God commanded you, so that things may go well for you and that you may live a long time in the land that Jehovah your God is giving to you.13[#6] You must not commit murder.14[#7] You must not commit adultery.15[#8] You must not steal.16[#9] You must not testify falsely against your neighbor.17[#10] You must not desire your neighbor’s woman, his house, his field, his male servant, his female servant, his ox, his burro, any other animal, or anything else that belongs to your neighbor.’18Well, all the while, the people were being distracted by all the thunder and lightning, the sounds of the trumpets, and the smoke on the mountain; and everyone was afraid and backing far away...19So they told Moses:‘You talk to us… Don’t let God talk to us, because we’re afraid that we might die!’20And Moses said to them:‘Be courageous! For The God came here to test you and to put the fear of Him into you, so you won’t sin.’21However, the people just kept backing away.Then Moses went into the darkness where God was...22And Jehovah said to Moses:‘This is what you must say to the house of Jacob and what you must report to the children of IsraEl:Now you’ve seen Me speaking to you from the sky; 23so, don’t make gods of silver or gold for yourselves.24You may make an Altar to Me from the dirt in whichever place that I record My name, and that’s where you must sacrifice your whole burnt offerings, as well as the peace offerings of your sheep and calves, and that’s where I’ll come to you and bless you.25However, if you should choose to build a stone Altar to Me, don’t use cut stones; because, if you use tools on them, they’ll become unclean. 26And don’t build any steps up to My Altar, so that the naked [parts of your bodies] can be seen from [below].’

    21

    [Editor note: God now outlines more detailed laws for the new nation. The story continues in Exodus 23:20.]1‘Now, these are the Laws that you are to show to them:2If you buy a Hebrew slave, he may only serve you for 6 years; for in the 7th year, he must be set free without cost.3‘If he comes alone, he must leave alone; but if his wife comes with him, his wife must also leave with him. 4However, if his master gives him a wife and she gives birth to sons or daughters; she and her children belong to the master, so [the slave] will leave alone.5‘But if the slave should say:I love my master, my woman, and my children, so I don’t want to leave free...6...then this master should bring him to the judgment-seat of God and take him up to the door, where he will use an awl to punch [a hole through] his ear against the doorframe, [to signify] that he will serve [his master] throughout the age.7And if anyone sells his daughter as a house slave, she may not be sent away as other female slaves are released... 8For if she has been involved with him and if she thereafter hasn’t been found pleasing by him, he may only set her free… He may not sell her to some foreigner after that.9‘And if he’s obtained the wife for his son, he must treat her as his own daughter. 10But if he’s taken her for himself, he must never deprive her of her clothing, her needs, or her companionship with him. 11If he refuses to do any of these three things for her, she must be set free at no cost.12If any man strikes another man and kills him, he must absolutely be put to death. 13But if such a thing should happen by accident, or if God [allows the situation that causes the death]; I’ll provide a place to which the killer can run.14‘However, if someone who lies in wait and plans to murder his neighbor runs to that refuge, you must take him [far] from My Altar and put him to death.15Whoever beats his father or mother must be put to death, 16and whoever curses his father or mother must die.17If someone overpowers and kidnaps one of the children of IsraEl and sells him, or if he’s caught with him; [the kidnapper] must die.18If two men are shouting at each other and one hits the other with a rock or with his fist, and he doesn’t die but is laid up in bed; 19the man who hit him will be cleared if the other person can get up and walk (even with the aid of a cane), as long as he pays for the lost time and the cost of his healing.20If a man hits his male or female slave with a cane and the person dies as a result, he must be punished. 21However, if the slave continues to live a few days after that, the master shouldn’t be punished, because it’s his own loss.22If two men are fighting and [one] hits a pregnant woman and her child is born deformed as a result; he must be forced to pay whatever amount her man demands of him.23‘But if the child is born perfectly formed [although injured], he must pay life for life, 24eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, 25burning for burning, wound for wound, whipping for whipping.26If anyone should hit their male or female slave in the eye and put it out, that slave should be set free because of the eye injury.27‘And if he [breaks or knocks out] a male or female slave’s tooth, that slave must be set free because of the tooth.28If a bull gores a man or a woman and he or she dies, the bull must be stoned to death and its flesh may not be eaten… However, the bull’s owner will be [free of guilt].29‘But if the bull has been known to gore before and the owner was told and hasn’t done anything about it, and then it kills a man or woman; the bull must be stoned and its owner must also die.30‘However, if a ransom is demanded instead, he must pay whatever is asked for his life.31If a bull gores someone’s son or daughter, it must be handled according to the law that was given... 32But if the bull gores a male or female slave, their master must be paid 30 double-silver coins, and the bull must be stoned.33If anyone digs an open pit or a hole in rock and fails to cover it, and an ox or a burro falls into it; 34the owner of the pit must pay a compensation to [the animal’s] owner, but the dead [animal] will thereafter be his.35‘And if a man’s bull should gore his neighbor’s bull and kill it, they must sell the living bull and divide the money, then divide up the dead bull. 36However, if the bull has been known to gore in the past and his owner knew about this and failed to do anything about it; he must pay for the bull, and the dead one won’t be his.’

    22

    1If someone should steal an ox or a sheep and kills it or sells it, he must pay back 5 calves for a calf, and 4 sheep for a sheep.2‘And if a thief should be caught inside a fence and is beaten and dies as a result, no one will be found guilty [of killing him].3‘However, if someone [kills a thief] the next day, he’s guilty and should be [put to death].’‘If a thief has nothing left [of what he stole], he can be sold [as a slave] to repay what he’s stolen.4‘But if the thing he stole is still around and can be found alive in his possession (as with an ox or a sheep), he must pay back twice as much.’5‘And if anyone [has allowed his cattle] to strip his own field or vineyard, and then he sends his animals to graze in someone else’s field, he must [pay his neighbor back] out of the produce from his own field.‘But if the animals strip [his neighbor’s] entire field; he must pay with the best of his field and the best of his vineyard.6Now, if [someone sets a] fire (even if he thinks it has gone out) and it burns a threshing floor or a field of grain; the one who sets the fire must pay a compensation.7If anyone gives his neighbor money or other [valuables] to keep and they’re stolen from the man’s house; the thief must repay double if he’s caught.8‘But if the thief isn’t caught, the owner of the house must stand before God and swear that he hasn’t done anything wrong to whatever his neighbor left with him.9‘Then every accusation, whether it involves a calf, a burro, a sheep, some clothing (or whatever)… Every claim of loss must be taken before God.‘And anyone who is found guilty by God must repay his neighbor with twice as much.10And if anyone leaves a calf, a sheep, or any other animal with his neighbor and it’s wounded or it dies and no one knows for sure how it happened... 11Each must swear an oath to God that he isn’t guilty in any way. Then his master should find him innocent and he won’t have to pay a compensation. 12‘However, if it was stolen from him; he must repay the owner.13‘And if someone stole any other type of animal, [he must] return the animal to its owner, and he won’t have to pay a compensation.14If anyone borrows [an animal] from his neighbor and it’s wounded, or dies, or is stolen while its owner is away; he must be compensated for it... 15But if the owner is there; he doesn’t have to pay compensation.‘And if it’s something that he rented; [the owner] must be paid back in lieu of his rent.16If anyone deceives a virgin to whom he isn’t engaged, and [has sex] with her, he must take her as his wife. 17But if her father refuses and won’t consent to giving her to be his wife, he must pay her father the amount of dowry that’s required for a virgin.18You must not [seek the aid of] sorcerers.19Anyone who [has sex] with an animal must be put to death.20Anyone who offers sacrifices to a god other than Jehovah must be put to death.21You must not harm strangers or oppress them, because you were once strangers in the land of Egypt.22You must not do anything to harm widows or orphans. 23For if you treat them badly, they should call out to Me and I’ll hear them… 24And that will make Me very angry!‘Then you’ll be killed with a sword, so that your wife will become a widow and your children will become orphans!25If you lend money to one of your poor brothers who lives nearby, you shouldn’t be hard on him and you shouldn’t charge him interest.26‘And if you take your neighbor’s robe as security, you must make sure that he gets it back before sunset. 27Since it’s all that covers his nakedness, how could he then go to bed?‘And if he then should call out to Me, I’ll listen, because I’m merciful.28You should never speak badly of your mighty ones [Greek: theousgods plural] or say bad things about the rulers of your people.29You must never hold back the first fruitage of your threshing floor [or of your olive or wine] press.You must give your first-born sons to Me, 30as well as those of your calves, sheep, and burros... They may stay under their mothers for 7 days, but on the 8th day, you must offer them to Me.31‘You must be a holy [people] to Me... Therefore, you may not eat the flesh of wild animals… You should throw it to the dogs.’

    23

    1You should not accept false testimony, nor should you allow anyone who’s crooked to provide false testimony.2You must not join a mob to do bad things, nor should you go along with with the majority when they’re wrong.3If a man is found guilty, you must not [free him from his responsibilities] just because he’s poor, 4nor should you [find any man guilty] because he’s poor.5If you find your enemy’s ox or burro wandering loose, you must catch it and return it to him.6‘And if you see your enemy’s burro collapsed under its load, you shouldn’t just pass it by. You must help him to get it back on its feet.7Never do anything that’s unfair...‘You shouldn’t kill the innocent along with the guilty, or accept a bribe to find a guilty person innocent.8‘Nor should you accept gifts [when judging], because gifts blind the eyes of those who can see and twist the words of justice.9‘You should never mistreat a stranger, because you know how they feel – since you were once strangers in the land of Egypt!10You can plant your field and harvest it for 6 years...11‘However, every 7 years you must leave it alone and allow it to rest, so that the poor of your nation can [find] food there, and the wild animals can eat whatever is left.‘That’s also what you must do to your vineyards and your olive groves.12You should work for 6 days, but the 7th day is a day of rest, so that your burro, your ox, the sons of your female slaves, and strangers may be refreshed.13‘Guard all the things that I’ve commanded you – and don’t mention the names of other gods or speak of them in any way!14You must hold a feast to Me three times each year:15[Feast #1]‘Be sure to observe the Feast of Fermentation-Free Bread. You must eat fermentation-free bread for 7 days (as I told you before) during the time of the month of new grain, because that’s when you came out of Egypt… And don’t approach Me empty-handed!16[Feast #2]‘You must observe a feast when you harvest the first-fruits of your work, no matter what you’ve planted in your field.[Feast #3]‘And [you must observe] a feast at the end of the year when you harvest the crops in your field.17‘So, all your males must appear before Jehovah your God three times each year.18‘And when I drive the other nations out of your midst and widen your borders, you must never offer fermented bread along with the blood sacrifices, nor should the fat of My feast be allowed to stay [on the altar] until the next morning.19You must bring all the first fruitage of your fields to the House of your God, Jehovah.‘You must never boil a lamb in its mother’s milk.[Editor note: The story continues here, with God speaking.]20‘{Look!} I’m going to send My messenger to you in order to keep you headed in the right direction; for he will lead you into the land that I have prepared for you.21Be sure to listen to him… Obey him! He won’t give in to you, because he carries My Name.22‘Tell the children of IsraEl that if they’ll listen to what I say and do everything that I tell them, I’ll be an enemy to their enemies, and I’ll oppose anyone who’s against them.23‘Then I’ll send My messenger to serve as their leader, and [he will] bring them to [the land of] the Amorites, Chettites, Pherezites, CanaAnites, Gergeshites, Evites, and Jebusites, whom I’ll destroy.24‘However, [IsraEl] must not worship or serve the gods [of those people], nor should they do any of the things that they’re doing. Rather, [those people] must all be destroyed and their [sacred] columns must be pulled down!25‘If you serve Jehovah your God, I’ll bless your bread, your wine, and your water, and I’ll keep you from getting sick... 26There won’t be anyone in your land who’s impotent or infertile, and you’ll live full lives.27‘I’ll send terror ahead of you, all the nations in the land you’re entering will be amazed by you, and I’ll make all your enemies run from you! 28I’ll send hornets ahead of you to drive the Amorites, Evites, CanaAnites, and the Chettites away from you.29‘I won’t throw them out in the 1st year, so the fields don’t grow wild and allow wild animals to multiply there. 30But before long, I’ll start throwing them out ahead of you, until you grow and inherit the land. 31Then I’ll set your borders from the Red Sea to the [MediTerranean], and from the desert to the great EuPhrates River.‘Since I’ll be handing over those who are living in the land and driving them away from you, 32you must make no treaties with them or with their gods... 33For they won’t be allowed to live in your land, lest they cause you to sin against Me.‘Because, if you serve their gods, that will lead to your downfall.’

    24

    1Then the Lord told Moses:‘I want you, Aaron, NaDab, AbiUd, and 70 of IsraEl’s elders to come to Me and bow before [Me] from a distance. 2And thereafter, I want you to come close to Me by yourself… None of the others should come any closer!’3So Moses went and told the people about everything God had said and about His Laws.And the people unanimously answered all together:‘We will do and obey everything that Jehovah has said!’4Then Moses wrote down everything that the Lord said.And early the next morning, he built an Altar at the base of the mountain using 12 stones [to represent] the 12 tribes of IsraEl. 5After that, he sent young men from the children of IsraEl to offer up whole burnt offerings and to sacrifice young calves as peace offerings to God. 6Then Moses took half of the blood and poured it into bowls, and he poured the other half on the Altar.7Next, [Moses] took the scroll of the Sacred Agreement [that he wrote] and read it to the people.And they [again] said:‘We will do and pay attention to everything that Jehovah has said.’8Then Moses took the blood [from the bowls] and sprinkled it on the people, and he said:‘{Look!} This is the blood of the Sacred Agreement that Jehovah has made with you over the things you’ve agreed to.’9And thereafter, Moses, Aaron, NaDab, AbiUd, and 70 of the elders of IsraEl went up [the mountain], 10where they saw the place that the God of IsraEl was standing; and under His feet [they saw] what looked like slabs of cut sapphires that were as pure as the firmament.11So, all the chosen ones of IsraEl stood there in the presence of God – none were missing (not one) – and they ate and drank.12Then Jehovah told Moses:‘[I want you to] come [back] up the mountain to Me and stay here; for I’ll now give you the tablets of stone containing the Laws and Commandments that I’ve written.’13So [the next day], Moses got up and took his assistant JoShua to climb the mountain of God along with him.14And they told the elders:‘Rest here until we return.‘Look! Aaron and Or will be here with you; so if there are any [cases] that have to be tried, let them handle it.’15Then Moses and JoShua climbed the mountain, which was shrouded in a cloud. 16And the glory of The God came down on Mount SinAi, and the cloud covered it for 6 days... Then Jehovah called to Moses from the midst of the cloud on the 7th day.17Well, to the Children of IsraEl, the glory of Jehovah looked like a fire that was burning on top of the mountain!18Then Moses entered the cloud and climbed the mountain, where he stayed for 40 days and 40 nights.

    25

    [Editor note: The Lord now gives detailed instructions for the construction of the objects for worship. The story continues at Exodus 31:1.]1It was there that the Lord told Moses:2‘Speak to the children of IsraEl and [ask for] the first fruits of everything that their hearts are willing to give… Then you must [collect] it [and set it aside].3‘These are the offerings that you are to ask for:• Gold,• Silver,• Bronze,4Blue [thread],• Purple [yarn],• Scarlet [cloth],• Fine-spun linen,• Goats’ hair,5Ram’s skins that are dyed red ,• Blue, and • Durable wood.6‘[You should also ask for] lamp oil, fragrances for anointing oil, ingredients for incense, 7and for rubies and other [precious] stones that will fit into a breastplate, as well as a full-length robe.8‘You must now make a Sacred Place for Me, where I can appear among you. 9Everything you make for Me must follow the examples that I’ll show you on the Mountain... There’ll be an example for the Sacred Place and examples for all of its furnishings. And that’s how you are to make them.10‘You must also build a Chest for the Proofs. [Build it] from durable wood.‘It must be:‘50 inches (130cm) wide,30 inches (75cm) deep, and30 inches (7cm) tall.11‘Cover it with pure gold both inside and out, and put spun gold wreaths around it. 12You must create 4 gold rings for it, and mount 2 rings on each side.13‘Then make [two] poles of durable wood, cover them with gold, 14and put the poles into the rings on the sides of the Chest, to carry it 15(these poles should always be left in the rings on the Chest).16‘Then you must put the Proofs that I’ll give to you inside of the Chest.17‘You must also make the Lid. It is to be a cover of pure gold, 50 inches (125cm) long and 30 inches (75cm) wide. 18And you’ll carve two [statues of] cherubs from gold and mount them on the Lid.19‘A cherub will be mounted on this side of the Lid, and a cherub [statue] will be mounted on its other side, so there’ll be a cherub [statue] on each side... 20The cherubs will face each other with their heads bowed towards the [center of the] Lid. And they must have wings that are outstretched over them that [extend forward] over the Lid.21‘Then the Lid must be put on top of the Chest, which will contain the Proofs that I’ll give to you.22‘This is where I’ll make My presence known to you. I’ll speak to you from above the Lid, between the two [statues of] cherubs on the Chest of Proofs... It’s there that I’ll talk to you and instruct you concerning everything that has to do with the children of IsraEl.23‘You are also to make a table of pure gold that’s:‘40 inches (100cm) long,20 inches (50cm) wide, and30 inches (75cm) tall.24‘It must have gold wreaths going around it and a 6-inch (15cm) rim 25that has a spun wreath circling it.26‘You must also make 4 gold rings and fasten them to the 4 feet (1.2m) under the rim. 27These rings will be supports for the poles that will be used to carry the table. 28The poles should be made of durable wood and covered with pure gold, for carrying the table.29‘You should also make dishes, incense burners, bowls, and cups (for drink offerings) out of pure gold. 30These must always be set before Me on the table of Show Bread.31‘You must also shape a lampstand from pure gold... The whole thing – it’s stem, branches, sockets, knobs, and lilies – must be a single piece.32‘It is to have 6 branches that come from its sides… Three branches for lamps on one side and three branches for lamps on the other side... 33[Each branch] that comes from the lampstand should be topped with an almond-shaped socket [to hold the lamps], which is to be mounted above a knob and a lily.34‘Each will have 4 sockets that are shaped like almonds, and the knobs and flowers on each branch should be the same. 35There’ll be a knob under two branches and a knob under 4 branches that come from it, so that 6 branches come from the lampstand, and each will have 4 bowls shaped like almonds.36‘The knobs and the branches must be a single piece that’s carved from a block of pure gold. 37‘So, there must be 7 lamps that all shine from the same side.38‘You must also make funnels and serving plates of pure gold... 39They should each be made with a measurement of pure gold, 40using the example that I’ll show you on the mountain.’

    26

    1‘Then you must make the Tent with 10 curtains of fine-spun linen, blue [thread], purple [yarn], and scarlet [cloth], with a pattern of cherubs woven into them.2‘The curtains must be 47 feet (14.3m) long and 6-3/4 feet (2m) tall. All the curtains must be the same size... 3Five of the curtains will be joined to each other, and the other five will be closely connected to each other.4‘You must put blue loops on one side of each curtain and [loops] on the other side to [join them]. 5There should be 50 loops [on one side] and 50 loops at the same locations on the other side to connect them... 6Then you must make 50 gold rings that will hold the curtains together so as to make it a single Tent.7‘You must make a roof for the Tent using 11 sections of [goat hair cloth]. 8Each section should be 50 feet (15m) long, 6-3/4 feet (2m) wide, and all 11 should be the same size.9‘Then connect [the cloths in strips of] fives, and attach the sixth [cloth] and fold it over the front of the Tent. 10Thereafter, make 50 loops on the side of the [cloth] and 50 loops on the edge of the second one, where they’ll be joined... 11And make 50 bronze rings and use them to connect the loops, then tie the [cloths] together to form a single piece.12‘Next, connect the [11th cloth] to the roof of the Tent at its centerfold, and allow half of it to hang down. Also, any extra [cloth] should hang over the sides of the Tent… 1320 inches (50cm) of [cloth] should hang over each side of the Tent to cover it.14‘Then make another covering from ram’s skins that have been dyed red and blue, and put it over the [Tent] roof.15‘You must also make tent posts from durable wood.16‘Each post should be 7-3/4 feet (2.3m) long and 2-1/2 feet (75cm) thick. 17All the posts should have two joints for connections. 18You should make 20 posts for the north side, 19and 40 silver sockets should be made to connect them, with a [base] socket for each of the posts.20‘Then make 20 posts for the south side of the Tent, 21and 40 silver sockets to connect each end of the posts.22‘And for the side of the Tent that faces west, 23you must make 6 posts plus 2 corner posts for its backside.24‘They must all be the same and join at the same spots on each end, so that all the corners are equal. 25There are 8 posts, which need 16 silver sockets, one for each end of each post.26‘And you must make rafters of durable wood.‘Make five for the posts on one side of the Tent, 27five for the posts on the other side of the Tent, five for the posts in the rear, and one for the side of the Tent that faces the sea. 28This center rafter should run between the posts lengthwise from end to end.29‘The posts should be covered with gold and fitted with gold rings to hold the rafters, and all the rafters must be covered with gold.30‘Then you must assemble the Tent according to the example that I’ll show you on the mountain.31‘After that, you must make a veil of spun blue [thread], purple [yarn], scarlet [cloth], and fine-spun linen that will have [images of] cherubs woven into it.32‘You must mount it on 4 posts of durable wood that are overlaid with gold and with gold covering each of their caps, as well as silver sockets for the base of each one. 33Then mount the veil on the posts and carry it inside to serve as a veil for the Chest of Proofs.‘This veil will form the separation between the Holy Place and the Holiest of Holies. 34Use the veil as a screen for the Chest of Proofs in the Holiest of Holies.35‘Next, put a table outside of the veiled area, on the north side of the Tent, and put the lampstand opposite the table on the south side of the Tent.36‘Then make a veil as a door for the Tent out of blue [thread], purple [yarn], scarlet [cloth], and embroidered fine-spun linen.37‘You must make five posts for the veil that are capped at the top and covered with gold, and bronze sockets for the base of each one.’

    27

    1‘Then you must make an Altar of durable wood that will be square, 8-1/4 feet (2.5m) long, 8-1/4 feet (2.5m) wide, and 5 feet (1.5m) high.2‘You must also create horns for each of the four corners. They’ll be made of a single piece and overlaid with bronze.3‘You must make a rim for the Altar and a covering, plus cups, meat hooks, a fire pan and all its utensils, from bronze.4‘You must also make a bronze meshed grating with four bronze rings, one for each of its four sides... 5Mount the rings under the grating and center it in the middle of the Altar.6‘You must also make Altar poles from durable wood that are to be overlaid with bronze. 7Then put the poles into the rings on each side of the Altar, to carry it.8‘[The Altar] will be hollow and made from wood in a way that will be shown [to you] on the mountain.9‘You must also make a courtyard for the Tent:‘On the south side, its curtains should be made of fine-spun linen and they’ll run 167 feet (50m) long.10‘They’ll require 20 posts and 20 bronze sockets, as well as silver rings and clasps.11‘The curtains on the north side will also run 167 feet (50m) long, with 20 posts, 20 bronze sockets, as well as the rings and the clasps for the posts. However, their sockets must be overlaid with silver.12‘The curtains on the west side of the [courtyard] must run 84 feet (25.6m) with 10 posts and 10 sockets. 13And along the width of the [courtyard], on the south side, there should also be curtains that run 84 feet (25.6m) long, with 10 posts and 10 sockets.14‘There must be a 25 foot [awning] on one side of the [courtyard entrance], which is to be [supported by] three posts and three sockets. 15And on the other side, there must be an [awning] that runs 25 feet (7.6m), with three posts and three sockets.16‘The courtyard entrance must be a 33-foot-high veil of blue [thread], purple [yarn], scarlet [cloth], and fine-spun embroidered linen. It should have four posts and four sockets.17‘All the courtyard posts are to be overlaid with silver, with silver caps and bronze sockets.18‘So the length of the courtyard will be 163 feet (49.7m), its width should be 82 feet (25m), and its height must be 8 feet (2.4m)… All of fine spun linen mounted on sockets of bronze.19‘And all the furnishings, instruments, and pins for the courtyard are [to be made of] bronze.20‘Now, give instructions to the children of IsraEl and have them bring you pure, refined olive oil that has been beaten for burning in a lamp, so the lamps can be kept burning continually 21inside the Tent of Proofs, but outside of the veil that hides the Chest of the Sacred Agreement.‘Aaron and his sons must keep them burning all night long before Jehovah... This is the rule that must be followed throughout all generations of the children of IsraEl.’

    28

    1‘Now, I want you to choose your brother Aaron and his sons NaDab, AbiUd, EliEzer, and IthaMar, who are all children of IsraEl, to be My servants.2‘You must make holy clothing for your brother Aaron, to honor and glorify [him]. 3So, talk to all the wise and understanding [people] whom I’ve filled with the spirit of wisdom and comprehension, and have them make holy clothing for Aaron to wear in the Holy Place, where he will serve as a Priest to Me.4‘These are the clothes that they must make:• A breastplate• A shoulder piece• A full-length robe• A fringed tunic• A turban• A sash.‘These are to be holy garments for Aaron and his sons to serve Me as Priests.5‘They must take gold and fine-spun linen with blue [thread], purple [yarn], and scarlet [cloth], 6and embroider them [to serve as] the shoulder pieces. 7Both shoulder pieces must be joined together and fastened on each side. 8They should be woven as a single piece of pure gold with blue [thread], purple [yarn], scarlet [cloth], and fine-spun linen.9‘Then you must take two large emeralds and engrave the names of IsraEl’s sons on them, 10with six names on the first stone and the other six names on the second stone, in the order of their births... 11It must be done artistically by a stone engraver in raised letters like a seal, for each of the names of the children of IsraEl.12‘Then mount these stones on each of the shoulder pieces. They are to be memorial stones of the children of IsraEl. Therefore, Aaron will wear the names of the children of IsraEl before Jehovah on his shoulders, in memory of them.13‘Then you must make [two] small rings of pure gold, 14and two fringes mixed with flowers and wreaths of pure gold. Mount the wreathed fringes on the small rings and fasten them to the front of the shoulder pieces.15‘Then you must make The Word of Judgment:‘It is to be embroidered; and to keep the theme of the rest of the sacred clothing, you should make it of gold, blue [thread], purple [yarn], scarlet [cloth], and fine-spun linen.16‘Make it square, 9 inches (23cm) long and 9 inches (23cm) wide, and doubled. 17Then, four columns of stones should be woven into it.• The first column will have a ruby, a topaz, and an emerald.18The second column will have a carbuncle, a sapphire, and a jasper.19The third column will have a jacinth, an agate, and an amethyst.20And the fourth column will have a peridot, a beryl, and an onyx.‘All of these should be mounted in gold settings with gold clasps... Make sure they’re assembled in that order!21‘Then each stone must be engraved like a seal with the name of [one of] the 12 children of IsraEl in his order.22‘The Word of Judgment must also have woven fringed chains of pure gold. 23Make two gold rings for it and place them on either side of the Word. 24And along the border, connect the chains to the rings on each side of the Word.25‘Then on each side of the two borders, you must place the wreaths. Place them on the sides of the shoulder piece, opposite each other and towards the front.26‘Thereafter, make two more gold rings and place them on the tips of the Word on the back side and within the shoulder pieces.27‘Also, make two more gold rings, place them on the shoulder pieces on their bottom edges towards the front, to serve as couplings above the woven portions of the shoulder pieces.28‘Then secure the Word by its gold rings that are sewed to the blue work, to the gold rings on the shoulder pieces, so that it’s held tightly to the woven work on the shoulder pieces above it.29‘Thereafter, Aaron must wear the names of the sons of IsraEl on the Word of Judgment whenever he enters the Holy Place, as a reminder before God. 30And you must place the Revelation and the Truth over The Word of Judgment, which Aaron will wear into the Holy Place whenever he goes before Jehovah.‘So, Aaron will always bear the judgments of the sons of IsraEl on his chest whenever he goes before Jehovah.31‘And you are also to make an undergarment [for him] that’s entirely blue and reaches to his feet... 32The middle portion is to be a woven work that’s coupled to the rest so it can’t be torn; 33then along the bottom hem, there are to be blossoming pomegranates all around that are woven from blue [thread], purple [yarn], scarlet [cloth], and fine-spun linen, surrounded by pomegranates and bells of gold in between.34‘And between the gold pomegranates, there are to be bells and a flowered work along the hem. 35[These bells] will jingle whenever Aaron enters and leaves to officiate before Jehovah, so he doesn’t die.36‘You must also make a plate of pure gold, into which you must carve the impression:‘Holy to Jehovah.’37‘It is to be fastened to the front of the turban with blue yarn 38and worn upon Aaron’s forehead, so he can lift away the sins of the holy things that the sons of IsraEl offer as holy gifts.‘It must always be there on Aaron’s head whenever he accepts their gifts.39‘The fringes on the undergarments must be made of linen, and you must make a turban of fine linen, as well as a sash of embroidered work.41‘You must put them upon your brother Aaron and his sons, then anoint them and empower their hands... Purify them, so that they can officiate as Priests before Me!42‘You must also make linen underwear for them (to cover the indecency of their flesh) that run from their loins to their thighs... 43Aaron and his sons must wear them whenever they enter the Tent of Proofs and whenever they serve at the Altar of the Holy Place, so they don’t bring sin upon themselves and die.‘This is the rule for him and his offspring throughout the ages.’

    29

    1‘These are the things that you must do to them to make [Aaron and his sons] holy, so they can serve Me as Priests:‘Take one young calf from the herd and two perfect rams. 2Then make some fermentation-free bread with the finest wheat flour that has been kneaded with oil, and some fermentation-free round cakes with oil poured over them.3‘Thereafter, put them into a basket to be offered along with the young calf and the two rams.4‘Then bring Aaron and his sons to the entrance of the Tent of Proofs and wash them with water... 5And after that, get the [sacred] garments and dress your brother Aaron with the full-length robe, the chest covering, and the Word (of Judgment), and tie the Word to the chest covering.6‘Then put the turban on his head and mount the plate of Holiness on the turban, 7and take the anointing oil and anoint him by pouring it over his head.8‘Then bring his sons in and dress them… 9Wrap them with sashes and put on their turbans to create a Priesthood for Me throughout the ages.‘After that, you must empower Aaron and his sons:10‘Bring the calf to the entrance of the Tent of Proofs and have Aaron and his sons lay their hands upon the calf’s head before Jehovah.11‘Then you must slaughter the calf before Jehovah there at the entrance to the Tent of Proofs. 12Take the calf’s blood and wipe it on the horns of the Altar with your finger, and pour the rest of the blood out at the base of the Altar.13‘Then take all its belly fat, its liver and kidneys, along with any fat that’s on them, and [burn] them on the Altar. 14However, the calf’s flesh, skin, and manure must be burned outside of the camp as an [offering] for sins.15‘Next, take one of the rams, and have Aaron and his sons lay their hands on its head, 16and slaughter it. Collect the blood and pour it on and around the Altar, 17then cut the ram into several pieces and wash the insides and the feet with water, and set the pieces and the head aside.18‘Then you must put the whole ram on the Altar as a burnt offering and a sweet-smelling delight to Jehovah. It’ll be like incense to Jehovah.19‘Then take the 2nd ram, and have Aaron and his sons lay their hands on its head; 20you must slaughter it and collect the blood, and touch a little of the blood to the tip of Aaron’s right ear, to the thumb of his right hand, and to the big toe of his right foot... [Then touch some of it to] the tips of his sons’ right ears, the thumbs of their right hands, and the big toes of their right feet.21‘Thereafter, take some of the blood from the Altar and [mix it with] anointing oil, and sprinkle it on Aaron and on his clothes, as well as on his sons and on his sons’ clothes. This will purify him and his clothing, and his sons and their clothing.‘Then pour the rest of the blood out around the Altar.22‘After that, [set aside] all of the ram’s fat, including the belly fat, the liver and kidneys and any fat on them, and the right shoulder, to complete [the ceremony].23‘And take one of the round cakes [that have been covered] with oil and one loaf from the basket of fermentation-free bread, and set them before Jehovah... 24Then give the rest to Aaron and his sons. But the [loaf and the round cake] must be offered separately to Jehovah.25‘Take them from the hands of the Priests and put them on the Altar, then burn them as offerings of sweet-smelling delights to Jehovah.26‘Then you must remove the ram’s breast at the end of the ceremony for Aaron. It is to be offered before Jehovah… And [the rest] must be shared with you.27‘You must cut up the breast and the shoulder that was removed from the last lamb and give it to Aaron and his sons. 28This will be a requirement for the children of IsraEl and for Aaron and his sons throughout the ages. This is to be a separate and special offering to Jehovah from the children of IsraEl, as one of their peace offerings.29‘The clothing that Aaron wears inside the Holy Place must thereafter be passed on to his [future generations, after he dies], so his [descendants] can be anointed in them and empowered when they wear them.30‘The Priests among his descendants who succeed him and who enter the Tent of Proofs to serve in the Most Holy, must wear them for 7 days.31‘You must then boil the flesh of the last lamb in the Holy Place, 32and Aaron and his sons will eat the ram’s flesh with the loaves [of bread] in the basket, next to the Tent of Proofs.33‘They must eat the offerings that were used to make them holy and to empower them. They can’t be eaten by anyone else, because these things are holy!34‘And if the sacrificed flesh of the final sacrificial lamb and the bread should be left until the next morning, it must all be burned, not eaten, because it’s something that’s holy.35‘You must always do this for Aaron and his sons, just as I’ve told you.‘The empowerment will take 7 days. 36You must sacrifice the calf for the sin offering on the cleaning day, and then you’ll clean the Altar where you’ll sacrifice the last lamb, and anoint it to make it holy.37‘The Altar must be cleaned and made holy for each of the 7 days, because the Altar is very holy, and anyone who touches it must also be holy.38These are the sacrifices that you must offer on the Altar:‘Two perfect yearling lambs must be offered each day, 39one in the morning and the other in the evening. 40And each lamb should be offered along with 3 quarts (2.8l) of fine flour that has been mixed with a quart of [olive] oil and with a quart of wine as a drink offering.41‘You must offer the same things with the 2nd lamb [that’s sacrificed] in the evening (which includes the drink offering) as a sweet-smelling delight to Jehovah.42‘This sacrifice is to be offered before Jehovah by all your generations throughout the ages at the entrance to the Tent of Proofs. For that’s where I’ll be made known to you and where I’ll speak to you from now on... 43This is where I’ll instruct the children of IsraEl, and where I’ll be treated as holy in My glory.44‘I will make the Tent of Proofs and its Altar holy, and I’ll make Aaron and his sons holy, so they can serve Me as Priests.45‘Here the children of IsraEl will call to Me, and I will be their God. 46Then they’ll know that I am Jehovah, the God who brought them out of the land of Egypt, so they can call on Me and I can be their God.’

    30

    1You must also make an incense Altar from durable wood:2‘It should be 20 inches (50cm) long, 20 inches (50cm) wide, and 40 inches (100cm) tall; and it should have horns that are made from a single piece [of wood].3‘Its grating, all its sides, and its horns must be covered with pure gold. It should have wreathed edges of gold all around, 4and under the wreathes you must put two rings of pure gold on each side, to serve as supports for the poles that you’ll use to carry it.5‘The poles must be made from durable wood and covered with gold.6‘Then place [the incense Altar] in front of the veil that [hides] the Chest of Proofs where I will make My presence known to you.7‘Aaron must burn a fine compound of incense on [this Altar] each morning, after he snuffs the lamps. 8And when Aaron lights the lamps in the evening, he must burn incense on it again. So, incense will be offered continuously before Jehovah throughout your generations.9‘You must not offer a different type of incense on it, set any fires on it, offer any sacrifices on it, or pour drink offerings on it.10‘And at the same time each year, Aaron must offer the reconciliation for their generations on its horns with the blood of purification, because it’s very holy to Jehovah.’11Then the Lord told Moses:12I want you to take a census of the children of IsraEl.‘Each [person] must pay Jehovah a ransom for his life, so no one will be destroyed when they’re visited.13‘This is what everyone who’s surveyed must give: half a double-silver coin (or 20 copper coins), which is to be used for the Holy Place as an offering to Jehovah.14‘Everyone from 20 years old and up who answers to the census must pay this offering to Jehovah. 15The rich won’t pay any more, and the poor won’t pay any less than the half double-silver coin that they must offer to reconcile their lives with Jehovah.16‘Then you must take the money that the children of IsraEl pay and use it for the services at the Tent of Proofs.‘The children of IsraEl must always remember to do this, so as to reconcile their lives [with Jehovah].’17And the Lord spoke to Moses, and said:18You must make a bronze bowl with a bronze base for washing:‘It must be put between the Tent of Proofs and the Altar, and you must fill it with water. 19Then Aaron and his sons must use the water to wash their hands and feet.20‘For whenever they enter the Tent of Proofs, they must wash themselves with the water, so they won’t die... And they must do [the same] whenever they go to the Altar for services or to burn sacrifices to Jehovah.21‘In addition, they must wash their hands and feet in the water whenever they enter the Tent of Proofs, so they don’t die.‘This is the rule for him and his descendants throughout the ages.’22Then the Lord told Moses:23You must also gather these sweet-smelling items for the Holy Place:16 pounds (7.25kg) of choice myrrh flowers,• 8 pounds (3.6kg) of sweet-smelling cinnamon,• 8 pounds (3.6kg) of sweet-smelling calamus,2416 pounds (7.25kg) of cassia, and• 1 gallon (3.8l) of olive oil.25‘This must then be professionally formulated to make a perfumed holy anointing oil that’s to be used for sacred purposes...26‘Then you must use it to anoint:• The Tent of Proofs,• The Chest inside the Tent of Proofs 27(and all of its furnishings),• The Lampstand (and its furnishings),• The incense Altar,28The Altar of whole burnt-offerings (and all its furnishings),• The table (and all its furnishings), and• The wash basin.29‘You must cleanse them and make them extremely holy… And then everyone who touches them will become holy.30Thereafter, you must anoint Aaron and his sons and cleanse them, so they can serve Me as Priests.31‘Then say to the children of IsraEl:This will be your holy anointing oil throughout all your generations... 32It should never be poured on a man’s skin, and no one should make any of this for himself using the same formula, because it’s holy, and it should be [treated as] holy by you.33So if anyone makes anything like it and gives it to a stranger, he must be destroyed from among his people!34‘Also, gather these sweet-smelling substances:• Sweet myrrh oil,• Snail shells,Sweet galbanum, and• Transparent frankincense.‘They are to be combined in equal measures 35in a professional way, to make perfumed incense that will be pure and holy.36‘It must all be beaten into a fine powder and put in front of the Proofs inside the Tent of Proofs, where I’ll make My presence known to you... It must be treated as a most-holy incense by you, 37so you shouldn’t make any for yourselves by this formula, because it’s something holy to Jehovah.38‘Whoever makes anything like it so they can smell it must be destroyed from among his people!’

    31

    [Editor note: The story resumes here.]1Then the Lord told Moses:2‘{Look!} I have called on BeSeleEl (the son of Urias and the grandson of Or of the tribe of Judah) 3and I’ve filled him with the Breath of God and with the wisdom, understanding, and knowledge to be creative in all fields!4‘[He understands] carpentry and how to work with gold, silver, and bronze; [how to work with] blue thread, purple yarn and spun scarlet material, as well as 5how to do stone working and wood crafting… How to do everything!6‘So, I’ve chosen him, as well as EliAb (the son of AchiSamach of the tribe of Dan) and anyone else into whose heart I have put talent, to make everything that I’ve talked to you about.7‘[This includes]:• The Tent of Proofs,• The Chest of the Sacred Agreement (and the Lid that sits on top of it),• All the furnishings of the Tent,8The Altars,• The table and its furnishings,9The pure lampstand and its furnishings,• The wash bowl and its base,10Aaron’s official garments and the garments for his sons to serve Me as Priests,11The anointing oil, and• The incense for the Holy Place.‘They’ll make these things just the way I’ve told you.’12And the Lord said to Moses:13‘Also, tell the children of IsraEl that they must pay attention and keep My Sabbaths, because these are the sign between us through the generations that they know that I am the Lord who makes them holy.14‘They must guard the Sabbaths as something that’s holy to them. So, anyone who dishonors them must be put to death, and anyone who works on [those days] must have their lives destroyed from the midst of their people!15‘They may work for 6 days, but the 7th day is the Sabbath… A holy [day of] rest to Jehovah, and anyone who works on the 7th day must be put to death!16‘The children of IsraEl must keep the Sabbaths and obey them throughout their generations, 17for this is to be an Agreement throughout the ages between the children of IsraEl and Me.‘It is their sign to Me throughout the ages, because Jehovah made the skies and the lands in 6 days, and He stopped and rested on the 7th day.’18Well at that, He finished speaking to Moses on Mount SinAi and He gave Moses the two Tablets of Proofs that were made of stone and had been inscribed by the finger of God.

    32

    1[Well, after considerable time had passed] and the people saw that Moses hadn’t returned from the Mountain, they went to Aaron and said:‘[We want you to] make gods for us to lead us, because we don’t know what’s become of this Moses who brought us out of the land of Egypt.’2So Aaron told them:‘I want you to take all the gold earrings that your wives and daughters wear in their ears, and bring them to me.’3Then everyone took off their gold earrings and brought them to Aaron, 4and he took them from their hands, [had] them melted, and then the gold was carved into [the shape of] a calf.And he said:‘O IsraEl; this is your God who carried you out of the land of Egypt.’5And after he saw it, Aaron had an altar built next to it.Then Aaron proclaimed:‘Tomorrow [we’ll hold] a feast to the Lord.’6So he got up early the next morning and he offered whole burnt sacrifices and a peace offering [upon the altar]. Then the people sat down to eat and drink, and thereafter they got up to play.7Well at that, the Lord told Moses:‘Hurry and go down [the mountain], because the people whom you brought out of the land of Egypt are acting lawlessly!8‘Notice how quickly they’ve left the ways that you’ve shown them… For now they’ve made themselves a calf to worship, and they’ve even offered sacrifices to it, saying:9O IsraEl, this is your God who brought you out of the land of Egypt!10‘So, leave Me now, for I’m so angry with them that I’ll reject them and make a great nation of you!’11But Moses started begging the Lord. He said:‘O Jehovah,‘Why are you so angry with the people whom You brought out of the land of Egypt with Your mighty arm and with so much power?12‘Don’t allow the Egyptians to say:He wickedly took them away to kill them in the Mountains and to wipe them off of the land!‘Hold back Your rage and show mercy on the sins of Your people... 13Remember Your servants AbraHam, IsaAc, and Jacob, and the [oath] that You made to them when You swore by Your Name, saying:‘I will cause your offspring to increase [in number] so much that [they’ll become] like the stars in the skies!’‘And [remember the promise that You made] to give them all of this land as theirs throughout the ages.’14Well, that’s how Jehovah was moved to [keep them] as His people.15Then Moses turned and went down the Mountain carrying the two Tablets of Proofs in his hands... They were tablets of stone that were inscribed on both sides, 16and they were the works and writings of God.17Well, when JoShua heard the voices of people shouting, he said to Moses:‘That’s the sound of a war in the camp!’18But [Moses] replied:‘It isn’t the sound of people going to battle or the sound of defeat... What I hear is the sound of a lot of [partying].’19And when he got close to the camp, he saw the calf and the dancing, and Moses became so angry that he threw the two tablets from his hands and broke them into pieces at the base of the Mountain!20Then he took the calf that they’d made and had it melted and ground into dust, and he put it into some water and made the children of IsraEl drink it.21And after that, Moses asked Aaron:‘What have these people done to you?!‘Why have you made them [guilty of] such a great sin?’22And Aaron replied:‘Don’t be angry, lord; for you know how troublesome these people are! 23They told me:‘[We want you to] make gods for us to lead us, because we don’t know what’s become of this Moses who brought us out of the land of Egypt!’24‘So I said:‘If anyone has gold ornaments, take them off.’‘Then they gave them to me and I threw them into the fire, and out came this calf!’25Well, Moses realized that the people were divided, and Aaron was responsible… Which was something that would make their enemies very happy.26So Moses went to the entrance of the camp and shouted:‘Who is on Jehovah’s side? [May those who are], come here to me!’Well, all the sons of Levi came to him, 27and he told them:‘This is what Jehovah, the God of IsraEl, has declared:Everyone must [tie on] his sword and go through the camp from gate to gate, and each of you must kill [your rebellious] brothers and neighbors, starting with those who are the nearest to you!’28So the sons of Levi did just as Moses had told them, and 3,000 people fell that day.29Then Moses said:‘You are to be praised, because you’ve all raised your hands before Jehovah [and struck down] your own sons and your own brothers!’30Then the next morning, Moses spoke to the people and said:‘You’ve committed a great sin! So, now I must go up to God and pay for your sins!’31Therefore, Moses returned to Jehovah and said:‘I’ve [come to] beg You, O Lord; because these people are guilty of a great sin by making a god of gold.32‘So now, [please] forgive their sins. But if You choose not to; then, also erase my name from the scroll that You’ve written.’33But the Lord told Moses:‘I’m going to erase [the names] from My scroll of all those who’ve sinned against Me!34‘Now, go and lead these people to the place that I told you about when I said:{Look!} My messenger will travel before you.‘However, I’m also going to visit them and [punish] them for their sins.’35So thereafter, Jehovah struck the people for having Aaron make the calf.

    33

    1Then the Lord told Moses:‘Go on! You and the people whom you brought out of the land of Egypt must leave now and go to the land that I promised to AbraHam, IsaAc, and Jacob, when I said:‘I will give this [land] to your offspring. 2For I’ll send My messenger ahead of you, and he will throw out the Amorites, Chettites, Pherezites, Gergeshites, Evites, Jebusites, and CanaAnites, 3then I’ll bring you into a land that flows with milk and honey.’‘However, I won’t be going with you, for fear that I’ll destroy you along the way, because you’re such a stubborn people!’4Well, when the people heard this bad news, they went into mourning and dressed themselves in mourning clothes.5But the Lord told the children of IsraEl:‘You’re a stubborn people!‘Now, pay attention, so I don’t send another plague to destroy you!‘Take off your [mourning] clothes and their trappings, and let Me show you what I’ll do for you.’6So the Sons of IsraEl took off all their [mourning] gear there at the dry mountain (Horeb). 7Then Moses carried the [materials for] the Tent (which they called the Tent of Proofs) outside of the camp and [had it] assembled some distance away, so that everyone who [wanted an answer from Jehovah] would have to go outside the camp to the Tent.8Then, whenever Moses would enter or leave the Tent, everyone would stand and watch at its entrance, to see what would happen. 9For when Moses entered the Tent, a column of clouds descended and stayed at the Tent’s entrance while [God] was speaking to Moses.10And as they all watched the column of clouds at the entrance to the Tent, everyone stood there and prayed 11as Jehovah spoke to Moses face to face as though they were two friends!Then after that, [Moses] would return to the camp, but his servant JoShua (the son of NaWeh), who was a young man, didn’t leave the Tent.12Thereafter, Moses said to Jehovah:‘{Look!} You told me to lead these people on, but You haven’t shown me where You want me to go yet.‘You’ve also told me that You know me better than all the rest, and that You care for me... 13So now, if I’ve found favor in Your eyes, show Yourself to me so I can see You. Then I’ll know that I’ve found favor in Your eyes, and I can be sure that this great nation is truly Your people.’14And [God] replied:‘I’ll pass before you, to satisfy you.’15Then [Moses] said:‘But if You aren’t going to [travel] with us, don’t make me go either!16‘For, how would anyone know for sure that these people and I have found favor with You, unless You go with us? [And if You should choose to go], both Your people and I’ll be glorified above all the nations of the earth.’17Well at this, the Lord told Moses:‘I’ll do this thing that you’ve asked, because you’ve found My favor and I’ve put you above all the rest.’18Then [Moses] said:‘Then, show Yourself to me!’19And [God] said:‘I’ll pass before you with My glory, and I’ll call out My Name (Jehovah) in front of you as I say:‘I’ll be merciful to those for whom I feel mercy, and I’ll have pity on those for whom I feel pity.’20Then [God] told [Moses]:‘You won’t be able to see My face, because no man can see My face and live.’21And the Lord said:‘{Look!} Stand by Me on that rock [over there]; 22and as My glory is passing by, I’ll put you into a hole in that rock and cover you with My hand as I pass. 23Then I’ll remove My hand, so you can see My back… But you won’t be able to see My face.’

    34

    1And the Lord said to Moses:‘Now, you must cut two tablets of stone like the first ones, and climb the mountain to Me; then I’ll write the words that were on the first tablets, which you broke.2‘So, be ready to climb Mount SinAi in the morning, and then stand there [and wait] for Me at the top of the Mountain... 3Don’t allow anyone to go up with you or to even be seen on the Mountain! And don’t allow any sheep or bulls to graze near the Mountain.’4So [Moses] cut two stone tablets just like the first, and he got up early and climbed Mount SinAi, just as the Lord had told him, carrying the two stone tablets.5Then the Lord descended in a cloud and stood close to him, as He called out the Name, Jehovah. 6And the Lord passed before his face while He was saying:‘Jehovah, the God of mercy, pity, patience, concern, and truth, 7who brings justice and mercy to thousands, and removes wrong-doing, unrighteousness, and sins, but who won’t acquit the guilty...‘He’s the One who [punishes] the sins of ancestors on their children and on their children’s children to the 3rd and 4th generations.’8Then Moses quickly bowed to the earth and prayed:9‘If You care for me; may my Lord go with us, because these people are stubborn. Then You’ll remove our sins and our failings, and we’ll be Your people.’10And after that, the Lord said to Moses:‘{Look!} I am establishing a Sacred Agreement with you in the presence of all your people.‘I’ll do wonderful things that have never been done before anywhere on the earth or in any nation!‘Everyone among you will see the deeds that I’ll do for you… For they’re wonderful.11‘However, make sure that you do everything that I’ve told you to do. Then {Look!} I’ll throw the Amorites, CanaAnites, Pherezites, Chettites, Evites, Gergeshites, and Jebusites out from before you.12‘Be careful not to make any agreements with the people who live in the land that you’re entering, for fear that they’ll become stones to stumble you!13‘You must destroy their altars and smash their [sacred] columns, cut off their water, and burn the images of their gods... 14You must not worship other gods, because Jehovah, which is a zealous Name, is a zealous God.15‘Never make pacts with people who live in this land and then commit ‘adultery’ with their gods, or sacrifice to their gods, or have them call you to eat at their feasts.16‘You shouldn’t take their daughters as wives for your sons, nor should you give your daughters to their sons, so your sons and daughters don’t become ‘adulterers’ with their gods.17‘You aren’t to mold [any images of] gods for yourselves.18‘You must keep the Feast of Fermentation-Free Bread and eat fermentation-free bread for 7 days, just as I’ve told you, in the month and season of new grain… Because, that’s when you came out of Egypt.19‘All the first-born males are Mine… Yes, everyone who first opens the womb, including all your first-born oxen and sheep.20‘But when it comes to the first-born of burros; you must pay a ransom for them using a sheep or with money. You must also pay a ransom for your first-born sons… Don’t come to Me empty-handed!21‘You can work for 6 days, but you must rest on the 7th day, whether it’s during the seed-time or the harvest.22‘You must also observe the Feast of Weeks for Me at the beginning of the wheat harvest and at the harvest in the middle of the year. 23So, every male must appear before Jehovah the God of IsraEl three times each year.24‘For after I’ve driven the nations away from before you and enlarged your borders, no one will really desire your land… That is, as long as you go up to appear before Jehovah your God three times each year!25‘You must not offer the blood of My sacrifices with any fermentation, nor should the Passover sacrifices remain until the next morning.26‘The first fruits of your land must be taken to the House of your God Jehovah.‘You must not boil a young goat in its mother’s milk.’27Then the Lord told Moses:‘Write all of these words down, because they are the words of My Sacred Agreement with you and with IsraEl.’28Well, Moses was there [on the mountain] with Jehovah for 40 days and 40 nights; and during that entire time, he didn’t eat any bread or drink any water! Then He wrote the words of the Sacred Agreement (the Ten Commandments) on the tablets.29So when Moses came down the Mountain, he had the two tablets in his hands... But, as he was coming down, he didn’t realize that his face was glowing because of his conversation with God! 30And when Aaron and all the elders of IsraEl saw Moses’ face radiating, they were afraid to come any closer.31However, when Moses called to them, Aaron and all the heads of the gathering turned towards him, as he started speaking to them.32And after that, all the children of IsraEl also came to him, and he told them all the Commandments that Jehovah had given to him on Mount SinAi.33Then, after he’d finished speaking to them, he put a veil over his face. 34Yet, whenever Moses went in to speak to Jehovah, he would remove the veil until he [came back outside] to tell the children of IsraEl what the Lord had said to him.35[Of course], it was because the children of IsraEl could see Moses’ face radiating that he wore the veil over it after going in to speak to the Lord.

    35

    1After that, Moses assembled the entire gathering of the children of IsraEl and said:‘These are the commandments that Jehovah has told you to obey:2‘You can work for 6 days, but the 7th day is for resting. It’s a holy Sabbath and a rest for Jehovah. So, anyone that does work on [that day] must die.3‘You may not so much as light a fire in any of your homes on the Sabbath day; for I am Jehovah.’4Then Moses told the gathering of the children of IsraEl:‘This is what Jehovah has instructed you to do:5‘Take up [a collection] as an offering to Jehovah, and everyone whose heart moves him to do so must bring these as first-fruits to Jehovah:• Gold,• Silver,• Bronze,6Blue [thread],• Purple [yarn],• Double-spun scarlet [cloth],• Fine-spun linen,• Goats’ hair,7Ram’s skins that have been dyed red or blue,• Durable wood, and8Rubies and gemstones that can be engraved for the [Priest’s] shoulder-piece and full-length robes.9‘Then, any man among you who is wise at heart may come and create the things that Jehovah has commanded, such as:10The Tent,• The cords,• The coverings,• The rings,• The rafters,• The posts,11The Chest of Proofs and its staves,• The Lid,• The veil,12The curtains for the courtyard and their posts,13The [engraved gemstones],14The incense,• The anointing oil,15The table and all its furnishings,16The lampstand (for lighting) and all of its furnishings,17The Altar and all of its furnishings, 18and• The holy garments for the Priesthood of Aaron (the clothing that he must use in his services), 19as well as the Priestly garments for Aaron’s sons.’20And after the gathering of the children of IsraEl [had finished listening to] Moses, all that felt moved to do so brought whatever they thought would be appropriate as offerings... 21So, they donated (as offerings to Jehovah) everything that was needed for the Tent of Proofs and all of its services, as well as all the clothing for the Holy Place.22Then, any man who felt moved to do so brought items from their wives, such as gold...• Clasps,• Earrings,• Finger rings,• Necklaces,• Bracelets, and • All sorts of gold items.23Yes, many of them brought their gold jewelry to Jehovah, as well as their fine linen and ram’s skins that were dyed blue or red.24All those who brought offerings also brought items of silver and bronze to Jehovah, and everyone who had durable wood or the tools to work it, brought these things too.25Then the women who were skilled at spinning brought blue [thread], purple [yarn], scarlet [cloth], and fine linen. 26And thereafter, all the women who were moved to do so and were wise, spun the goats’ hair.27In addition, the [tribal] rulers brought emeralds and gemstones for the settings in the shoulder pieces and the Words [of Judgment].28They also brought the materials for the anointing oil and the things that would be used to make the incense.29So, every man and woman who was moved to do so came to do all the work that Jehovah had assigned to them through Moses [using the things that] the children of IsraEl had donated as offerings to the Lord.30And Moses told them:‘{Look!} God has specifically called BeSeleEl (of Urias and Or) from the tribe of Judah, 31and filled him with a godly spirit of wisdom, understanding, and knowledge, in order to be creative in all fields of expertise.32‘For he’s skilled in all sorts of crafts, such as working gold, silver, and bronze, 33in setting gemstones, and in doing wood carving… He does everything [well].34‘Both he and EliAb (of AchiSamach of the tribe of Dan) have been granted such understanding. 35They have been filled with wisdom, understanding, and the know-how to do all the work that must be done for the Tent, as well as how to weave and embroider using scarlet [cloth] and fine linen, and how to fashion all the unique embroidered items.’

    36

    1So BeSeleEl, EliAb, and all those who were wise and knowledgeable, were given the wisdom, knowledge, and necessary [skills] to do everything that had to be done for the holy offices in the way that Jehovah had instructed.2Then Moses called BeSeleEl, EliAb, and all the wise men who had received the needed skills from God, as well as everyone who was willing to come and donate their work, to get the job done.3Moses gave them everything that the children of IsraEl had brought to build the Holy Place. In fact, they continued to receive the gifts each morning, 4and wise people with many different skills kept showing up to work at the Holy Place.5Then one of them said to Moses:‘The people are bringing in too many of the things that Jehovah told them to bring!’6So Moses sent a proclamation throughout the camp, saying:‘No men or women should come to work or bring any more offerings to the Holy.’So they actually had to stop the people from bringing things, 7since they had enough material to make all the furnishings, with much left over.[Editor note: Now follows descriptions of the construction of the items for worship. The story continues at Exodus 40:17.]8The wise and thoughtful among those who were working on the Tent also produced 10 tent curtains:[They were made] from:• Blue [thread],• Purple [yarn],• Spun-scarlet [cloth], and• Fine-spun linen.[They were made] with [images of] cherubs carefully woven into them.9Each curtain was 42 feet (12.8m) wide and 6 feet (1.8m) tall… And all the curtains were the same. 10Then, two groups of five curtains each were connected end-to-end.11They also made blue loops along the edges of each curtain to join them to each other. And they made 50 [loops] along the outer edges of the following curtains to connect them all together… 12They put 50 loops on the first curtain and 50 corresponding loops on the next, so [the curtains] could be joined together at the loops.13Then [BeSeleEl] made 50 gold hooks to join each of the curtains to each other, in order to assemble the Sacred Tent.14After that, he also put together the 11 goat-hair coverings to serve as a roof for the Sacred Tent:15Each of these was 45 feet (13.7m) long and 6 feet (1.5m) wide. 16He joined five of the goat-hair coverings to make one portion, and six to make the other. 17He also made 50 loops along the edge of the first group of goat-hair cloths and 50 loops along the edge of the second group (in the middle), 18then he formed 50 bronze hooks and joined both sections with the hooks, making it a single sheet.19He also made the top covering for the Sacred Tent out of ram’s skins, some of which were dyed red, and some of which were dyed blue.20Then he made the posts for the Sacred Tent out of durable wood:21The first post was 15 feet (4.5m) tall, and 1-3/4 feet (53cm) wide. 22It had two joints that butted against each other… And that’s how he made all the posts for the Sacred Tent.23There were 20 posts on the side facing the south, 24along with 40 silver sockets to connect them (2 sockets per post), and two sockets for each of the posts that followed.25There were also 20 posts along the north side [of the Tent], 26and 40 silver sockets for them, two sockets per post. 27And for the rear of the Sacred Tent (the west side), he made 6 posts, 28plus two posts for the rear corners. 29Their sections were of equal lengths, both the tops and the bottoms, for the corner posts.30So altogether, there were 8 posts and 16 silver sockets – two per post.31He also made cross bars out of durable wood:Five [were set] between the posts along one side of the Sacred Tent, five were set between the posts to the other side of the Sacred Tent, 32five were set between the posts at the rear of the Sacred Tent (towards the west), 33and there was a single bar through the middle, which ran right through the posts from one side to the other.34He then covered the posts in gold and added gold rings to hold the poles; and he gilded the cross bars with gold.35He also made a veil:[It was made] from:• Blue [thread],• Purple [yarn],• Spun-scarlet [cloth], and• Fine-spun linen.[It had images of] cherubs carefully woven into them, 36and [he] placed it over four posts of durable wood that were covered in gold.The tips of the poles were covered in gold, but their four bases were made of silver.37Then he made a draw curtain for the entrance to the Tent:[It was made] from:• Blue [thread],• Purple [yarn],• Spun-scarlet [cloth], and• Fine-spun linen that was embroidered.38[It came] along with its five posts, the tips of which he gilded with gold, and he cast five bronze bases for them.

    37

    1Then BeSeleEl made the Chest from durable wood:It was 3-3/4 feet (114cm) long, 27 inches (70cm) wide, and 27 inches (70cm) tall.2He gilded it with pure gold both inside and out, and he made a waved border of spun gold all around it. 3Then he cast four gold rings for its four sides, two rings on one side and two rings on the other.4And he made bearing poles of durable wood, covering them with gold. 5Then he inserted the bearing poles into the rings on the sides of the Chest, to carry it.6Thereafter, he made the Lid of pure gold:It was 3-3/4 (114cm) feet long, and 27 inches (70cm) wide.7Then he made two [statues of] cherubs of beaten gold, and put them on each side of the Lid 8(one on the right and the other on the left), so there was a cherub on either side.9Both of the cherubs had out-stretched wings that overshadowed the Lid as they faced each other, for both cherubs faced [inward].10Next he made the Table from durable wood:It was 3 feet (91cm) wide, 1-1/2 feet (45cm) deep, and 2-1/4 feet (68cm) tall.11He covered it all in pure gold, 12and he made a spun, waved border of gold all around it. Then he made a rim for it that was 9 inches (23cm) around, and he put a spun, waved border around the rim.13He also cast four gold rings for it, and he placed the four rings on each of its feet. 14Then, next to the waved border rim, he placed rings to hold the bearing poles that were used to carry the table.15The bearing poles were also made from durable wood, which he then covered with gold.16He also made the utensils for the table:• Its saucers,• Incense pans,• Cups, and• The bowls in which the Priest would offer the drink offerings....[all were made] of pure gold.17After that, he made the Lampstand of pure gold:Its stems, branches, basins, knobs, and lilies were all formed on a lathe. 18It had six branches in a row, three on the right and three on the left.19Each of the oil basins were almond shaped, with a knob and lily on the six branches that were on either side of the one in the center of the lampstand. 20[This center] part had four almond-shaped basins on its single branch, along with knobs and lilies.21There was a knob under each pair of [the lamp’s] six branches that extended outward from the lampstand.22These branches and their knobs were all turned from single pieces of pure gold. 23Then he made its seven lamps, its snuffers, and their oil funnels of pure gold, 24which weighed some 60 pounds (27.2kg).25Next he made the Incense Altar out of durable wood:It was 1-1/2 feet (45cm) long, 1-1/2 feet (45cm) wide, and 3 feet (91cm) high.And on each of its four corners there were horns. 26He covered it with pure gold (its grate, its sides, and its horns), and he made a spun rim of gold all around it.27He also made rings of pure gold that he placed under its rim of spun gold for each of its four corners, to serve as holders for the bearing poles that they’d use to carry [this Altar].28He made the poles out of durable wood, and he covered them with gold.29Following that, he prepared the holy anointing oil and he mixed the incense in the pure ways of a perfumer.

    38

    1Then he made an Altar for the whole burnt offerings out of durable wood:It was 7-1/2 feet (2.3m) long and 7-1/2 feet (2.3m) wide. It had four corners, and it stood 4-1/2 feet (1.2m) tall.2He made horns for each of the four corners, which he then covered in bronze.3He also made a rim for the Altar, a lid for it, bowls for it, meat hooks for it, and a fire pit… He made everything out of bronze.4Then he made a grate of latticed bronze, 5and he made four rings to support the grate at each of its four sides out of bronze, which he placed under the grate ([The grate] was about half [the size of] the Altar).6He also made the bearing poles for the Altar out of durable wood, plating them with bronze. 7Then he inserted the bearing poles through the sides of the Altar, to carry it (it was hollow and made of boards).8He also made the bathing tub out of bronze:The bronze for its base came from the bronze mirrors of the women who had been fasting at the entrance to the Tent of Proofs.9Next, he made curtains for the courtyard:• The curtain towards the south was made of fine spun linen, 150 feet (45.7m) long. 10It had 20 posts and 20 bronze bases, and its hooks and their clips were made of silver.11The side towards the north was also 150 feet (45.7m) long, with 20 posts and 20 bronze bases; and their hooks and clips were of silver.12The curtains towards the west side were 75 feet (22.8m) long, with 10 posts and 10 bronze bases; and their hooks and clips were of silver.13And the curtains towards the east were 75 feet (22.8m) long.14[The entrance to the courtyard] ran 22-1/2 feet (6.8m) towards the rear, with three posts and three bases. 15Then there was a 2nd section leading to the entrance of the courtyard, with curtains that were 22-1/2 feet (6.8m) long, having three posts and three bases.16All the curtains for the Tent were made out of fine-spun linen, 17their bases were made of bronze, their hooks and clips were of silver, and all the posts in the courtyard were silver plated.18The veils for the entrance to the courtyard were embroidered of:• Blue [thread],• Purple [yarn],• Spun-scarlet [cloth], and• Fine-spun linen.They were each 30 feet (9.1m) long and 7-1/2 feet (2.3m) high, and they were connected to the courtyard curtains. 19They had 4 posts and 4 bronze bases.Their hooks were of silver, and their tips were silver plated, 20and all the courtyard tent pegs were made of bronze.21This was how things were arranged at the Tent of Proofs, just as the orders were given to Moses.IthaMar (the son of Aaron the High Priest) was in charge of everything, 22and BeSeleEl, the son of Uri of the tribe of Judah was in charge of making all the things (just as the Lord had instructed Moses). 23Also, EliAb (the son of AhiSamach of the tribe of Dan) supervised the weaving, stitching, and embroidering with the blue [thread], purple [yarn], spun-scarlet [cloth], and fine-spun linen.24[They] used 1,790 pounds (810kg) of gold in the Holy Places (which all came in as part of the first-fruit offerings), plus 730 holy gold coins.25All the silver that came from the census of those chosen from among the gathering amounted to 60,000 pounds (27,200kg), plus 1,775 shekels (a silver bar per head, which is half of a holy shekel) 26that was paid for each of the males in the census that were more than 20 years old among the 63,550.27[They] cast 60,000 pounds (27,200kg) of silver for the tips of the Sacred Tent and for the tips of the veil.There were 100 tips weighing 60 pounds (27.2kg) each. 28Also, [they] used 1,775 shekels to make the hooks for the posts, the tips of which were gilded and engraved.29[They] used 4,200 pounds (1,900kg) of bronze for sacred purposes, plus 2,400 shekels. 30From it they made the bases for:• The entrance to the Tent of Proofs,• The bronze Altar and its grate,• All the utensils for the Altar,31The bases all around the courtyard,• The bases for the entrance to the courtyard,• The pegs for the Tent, and• The pegs for the courtyard around it.

    39

    1And from what was left over of the blue, purple, and scarlet, they made into garments for the services of Aaron, so that he could officiate in them in the Holy Place, as the Lord had instructed Moses:2They made the shoulder pieces out of gold, blue [thread], purple [yarn], spun-scarlet [cloth], and fine-spun linen.3They cut up two sheets of hammered gold to create the gold threads and wove them into the blue [thread], purple [yarn], spun-scarlet [cloth], and fine-spun linen, 4[which they attached on either side of the sacred vest].5The vest was also made of gold, blue [thread], purple [yarn], spun-scarlet [cloth], and fine-spun linen, as the Lord had instructed Moses.6Then they attached the two emerald stones with clasps... They were carved and engraved like a seal with the names of the sons of IsraEl, and then inlaid with gold 7and placed on the tops of each of the shoulder pieces, in memory of the sons of IsraEl, just as the Lord had instructed Moses.8Next, they made the Word [of Judgment]:It was woven and embroidered (the same as the shoulder pieces) of gold, blue [thread], purple [yarn], spun-scarlet [cloth], and fine-spun linen. 9It was four-cornered, 9 inches (23cm) long, 9 inches (23cm) wide, and folded.10And into it they wove and inlaid precious stones that were arranged in four rows:• The first row had a sardius, a topaz, and an emerald.11The second row had a red garnet, a sapphire, and a jasper.12The third row had an amber, an agate, and an amethyst.13The fourth row had a chrysolite, a beryl, and an onyx.The stones were all set in gold and connected by gold. 14They were engraved like seals with one of the names of the 12 sons of IsraEl on each, representing the 12 tribes.15The Word [of Judgment] had a border with a tightly-joined wreath of pure gold.16Then they made two gold rings and two gold clasps. 17They placed the two gold rings on each of the corners of the Word [of Judgment], and they put wreaths of gold with fasteners over the two rings (on each side of the Word [of Judgment]), 18which connected to the sides of shoulder pieces, across from each other, in the front.19They connected the Word [of Judgment] to the back, inside of the shoulder piece. 20For they made two gold rings and placed them along the tips of the shoulder pieces, on the bottom sides and in the front, below the connector that was over the woven parts of the shoulder pieces.21The Word [of Judgment] was then fastened by its rings to the rings on the shoulder pieces. They were sewed in using blue thread, and they were closely joined into the woven work of the shoulder pieces, so the Word [of Judgment] wouldn’t come loose from the shoulder pieces, just as the Lord had instructed Moses.22Then they made the robe that went under the shoulder piece, which was woven entirely of blue thread:23It had an opening in the middle with a closely-woven, reinforced edge around the collar. 24Then along the bottom hem of the robe, there were woven blossoming pomegranates of blue thread, purple yarn, scarlet cloth, and fine-spun linen.25They also made gold bells and placed them around the bottom hem of the robe, between the figures of pomegranates. 26So there were gold bells and the figures of pomegranates all around the official robe, just as the Lord had instructed Moses.27They made all the garments for Aaron and his sons of fine woven linen:The turbans were of linen, 28the outer robes were of linen, the underwear were made from spun linen, 29and the sashes were made of linen that was embroidered with blue thread, purple yarn, and scarlet cloth, exactly as the Lord had instructed Moses.30They also made a curtain of pure gold to [hide] the Most Holy Place, upon which they wrote words in raised letters:‘Holy to Jehovah.’31It had a blue upper hem that connected it to the upper [cross bar], just as the Lord had instructed Moses.32So, all of the work on the Tent of Proofs was finally completed by the sons of IsraEl, just as the Lord had given the instructions to Moses.33The blue [thread], the purple [yarn], and the scarlet [material] that was left over, was used to make [more] garments for Aaron to wear in his services at the Holy Place.34They also brought garments to Moses for use in the Tent, as well as [things] for its furnishings, bases, rafters, and posts 35for the Chest of the Sacred Agreement and its carriers, and for the Altar and its furnishings.36They made:• The anointing oil,• The incense,• The holy lampstand 37and its lamps (that held oil for the light),38The showbread table and all its furnishings,39Aaron’s garments for use in the Holy Place,• The garments for his sons in their Priestly duties,40The curtains for the courtyard,• All the posts,• The veils for the entrance to the Tent and the courtyard,41All the furnishings and tools for the Tent,• The ram skins that were dyed red and blue,• Coverings for other things,• The pins,• And everything that was needed for work in the Tent of Proofs.42Whatever the Lord told Moses, the children of IsraEl made to complete the furnishings. 43And when Moses looked at all the work and saw that they’d done everything and made everything in the way that Jehovah had told him, he praised them.

    40

    1Then the Lord told Moses:2‘On the 1st day of the 1st month (the New Moon), you must assemble the Tent of Proofs 3and put the Chest of Proofs inside it, behind the veil.4‘Then carry in the table and lay [the bread] upon it...‘Also, bring in the lampstand and mount the lamps on it.5‘Then carry in the gold incense Altar and burn incense in front of the Chest, and hang the veil in the entryway to the Tent of Proofs.6‘Then put the Altar of burnt offerings next to the entry to the Tent of Proofs, and set up the rest of the Tent.7‘And put the bathing tub between the Tent of Proofs and the Altar, and put water in it. 8And you’ll set up the courtyard around it, and you’ll set up the veil of the courtyard gate. [missing from source]9‘Then take the anointing oil and anoint the Tent and everything in it, to cleanse it, so that it and all its furnishings will be holy... 10Also, anoint the Altar of burnt offerings and all of its furnishings. Make it clean, so that the Altar will be most holy.11‘And you’ll anoint the bathing tub and its base, and make it holy. And you’ll make the Altar holy, and it’ll become the Altar of the Most Holy. [missing from source]12‘After that, bring Aaron and his sons to the entrance of the Tent of Proofs and wash them with water... 13Then dress Aaron in the holy garments and anoint him, to make him holy, so he can serve as a Priest to Me.14‘And after that, bring in his sons, dress them in their garbs, 15and anoint them as you did their father, so they can serve Me as Priests. 16This anointing of the Priesthood [must be continued] throughout the ages.’And Moses did everything that the Lord told him.[Editor note: The story continues here.]17So it was that the Tent was erected during the 1st month (a year after they’d left Egypt… During the New Moon).18Moses set up the Tent, put on the caps, and set the rafters and posts in their places. 19Then he stretched the curtains over the Tent and installed the veil from the top of the Tent, as Jehovah had commanded.20He also took the Proofs and placed them inside the Chest; then he mounted the Chest on the poles 21and carried it into the Tent. And thereafter, he installed the veil to conceal the Chest of Proofs, just as the Lord had commanded.22After that, he carried the table into the Tent of Proofs and placed it on the north side, just outside the veil. 23And he brought in the showbread [and set it] before Jehovah, just as the Lord had instructed him.24Next, he brought the lampstand into the Tent of Proofs and placed it on the south side of the Tent, 25and he mounted its lamps in front of Jehovah, just as the Lord had commanded.26Then he brought the gold incense Altar into the Tent of Proofs and put it in front of the veil, 27and he lit the [sacred] incense upon it, just as the Lord had commanded.28And he set up the curtain of the door of the Tent. [missing from source]29He also put the Altar for the burnt offerings next to the Tent entrance.30And he placed the bathing tub between the Tent of Proofs and between the Altar, and he put water in it 31for Moses, Aaron, and his sons to wash their hands and feet 32when entering the Tent of Proofs (or whenever they went to serve at the Altar), just as the Lord had commanded. [missing from source]33And he set up the courtyard all around the Tent and the Altar. Yes, Moses did all these things.34After that, a cloud covered the Tent of Proofs and it was filled with the glory of Jehovah!35So then, even Moses wasn’t able to enter the Tent of Proofs because of the cloud that covered it and the glory of Jehovah that was inside of the Tent!36And after that, whenever the cloud would rise above the Tent, the children of IsraEl packed their bags and [got ready to leave]. 37But if the cloud stayed in place, they didn’t get ready to leave until the day that the cloud arose again... 38For the cloud covered the Tent during the day, and fire covered it during the night; and all IsraEl could [see this] as they traveled.


    Preferences


    CamelCase
    translator notes, commentaries

    Display the Divine Name as:


    Display the name of God’s Son as: